MichaelEmeryArt

Are "Desires" even a Emotion?

I came across this on Wikipedia's Desire -"While desires are often classified as emotions by laypersons, psychologists often describe desires as different from emotions. For psychologists, desires arise from bodily structures and functions (e.g., the stomach needing food and the blood needing oxygen). On the other hand, emotions arise from a person's mental state. A 2008 study by the University of Michigan indicated that, while humans experience desire and fear as psychological opposites, they share the same brain circuit."


Then that made me think of a writing of mine I did many years ago called "Seeking a Emotion"


Then I thought-" Homeostasis-simply as the balance of bodily functions.[3] The stable condition is the condition of optimal functioning for the organism, and is dependent on many variables, such as body temperature and fluid balance, being kept within certain pre-set limits.
e.g "if your cold,you seek warmth, if you lonely you seek companionship,etc"

So it is said all "Philosophy "is,is-" the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline."

This took me to- " Ok all these years,all these Philosophers, from say Plato to Simone Weil, nearly 2000 years, we have been seeking the " Truth or Reality" 

Then this made me think- "Why are there only these few individuals (many hundreds at least that we can find and study theirs writings). Why are most individuals not very concerned with ,or Desire to Know the Truth or "fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence."

Why does it seem so many are seeking instead such things as Pleasure,just having fun,Wealth,,many,many to the point that it greatly harms others?.

If by " Nature's Design " ,We have this built in system called "Homeostasis" ?,,yet with Homeostasis there is a paradox,you might say-"Homeostasis is brought about by a natural resistance to change in the optimal conditions "

Or " We natural desire that things stay just the way they are, that is as long as ,say the current conditions that the "Individual" is living in are not so terrible,they can manage,or put up with the conditions just as "they currently exist".

This made me think of- " My view of the "Ultimate" truth?, and it would be as nearly I can explain " Nature,or Mother Nature",I do know we all live on a planet we call "earth", and it is as much a living thing as each individual living thing, thus if we harm earth,we greatly harm ourselves, if other living things are in any way being harmed, we harm ourselves. In Essense I see all things people,animals,plants,dirt,rocks air,water,,everything,as that that makes up "Earth".

.Here is a quote I like "Our bones, flesh and blood are made up of the metals, liquids and minerals of the earth and everything on this planet is made up of the same things. As humans we have being, so everything on the earth does too in our culture, because we are made of the same thing. - John Trudell

I pretty much all my life have said "Nature is my Religion"..and Nature can only hold the Truth.

I understand why others have need for their own religions,I just can not understand why they think others should believe as they do. This has been a question,,that I wonder why it should even be a question. To me it is Like some one asking me "Whats your favorite color?..I reply violet,..then they say " Well mine is red,," we both say cool,,now we know each other's favorite colors!

I am pretty certain of this idea,,"Until we as parents and individuals,teachers and leaders start teaching first to , Be Human,to know Desires,to only Seek the Truth,,as Plato tried to teach, seek the Forms,,and their" Ultimate Truths"- We will not evolve mentally enough to overcome what we have now created..Thus we have wasted much time,,as in all reality we now, are as a Whole ,less Civilized then then Greeks where 400 bc.

We must stop teach children that all life is about is making money,seeking junk,having fun,etc.etc.etc.

..                                                 Some how we must create "The Desire"

In affective neuroscience, "desire" and "wanting" are operationally defined as motivational salience

Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates, or propels, an individual's behavior towards or away from a particular object, perceived event, or outcome.[1] Motivational salience regulates the intensity of behaviors that facilitate the attainment of a particular goal, the amount of time and energy that an individual is willing to expend to attain a particular goal, and the amount of risk that an individual is willing to accept while working to attain a particular goal

Motivational salience is composed of two component processes that are defined by their attractive or aversive effects on an individual's behavior relative to a particular stimulus: incentive salience and aversive salience.[1] Incentive salience is the attractive form of motivational salience that causes approach behavior, and is associated with operant reinforcement, desirable outcomes, and pleasurable stimuli.[2][3] Aversive salience is the aversive form of motivational salience that causes avoidance behavior, and is associated with operant punishment, undesirable outcomes, and unpleasant stimuli

Incentive salience is a cognitive process that confers a "desire" or "want" attribute, which includes a motivational component, to a rewarding stimulus.[1][2][3][9] Reward is the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces appetitive behavior – also known as approach behavior – and consummatory behavior.[3] The "wanting" of incentive salience differs from "liking" in the sense that liking is the pleasure that is immediately gained from the acquisition or consumption of a rewarding stimulus;[9][10] the "wanting" of incentive salience serves a "motivational magnet" quality of a rewarding stimulus that makes it a desirable and attractive goal, transforming it from a mere sensory experience into something that commands attention, induces approach, and causes it to be sought out.[9][10]

Incentive salience is regulated by a number of brain structures, but it is assigned to stimuli by a region of the ventral striatum known as the nucleus accumbens shell.[1][2][9] Incentive salience is primarily regulated by dopamine neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic projection,[note 1], but activity in other dopaminergic pathways and hedonic hotspots (e.g., the ventral pallidum) also modulate incentive salience

Clinical significance

The assignment of incentive salience to stimuli is dysregulated in addiction.[1][9][10][12] Addictive drugs are intrinsically rewarding (i.e., pleasurable) and therefore function as primary positive reinforcers of continued drug use that are assigned incentive salience.[3][9][10][12] During the development of an addiction, the repeated association of otherwise neutral and even non-rewarding stimuli with drug consumption triggers an associative learning process that causes these previously neutral stimuli to act as conditioned positive reinforcers of addictive drug use (i.e., these stimuli start to function as drug cues).[9][10][12] As conditioned positive reinforcers of drug use, these previously neutral stimuli are assigned incentive salience (which manifests as a craving) – sometimes at pathologically high levels due to reward sensitization – which can transfer to the primary reinforcer (e.g., the use of an addictive drug) with which it was originally paired.[9][10][12] Thus, if an individual remains abstinent from drug use for some time and encounters one of these drug cues, a craving for the associated drug may reappear. For example, anti-drug agencies previously used posters with images of drug paraphernalia as an attempt to show the dangers of drug use. However, such posters are no longer used because of the effects of incentive salience in causing relapse upon sight of the stimuli illustrated in the posters.

Pleasure

Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking. It includes more specific mental states such as happiness, entertainment, enjoyment, ecstasy, and euphoria. The early psychological concept of pleasure, the pleasure principle, describes it as a positive feedback mechanism, motivating the organism to recreate in the future the situation which it has just found pleasurable and to avoid situations that have caused pain in the past.[1]

The experience of pleasure is subjective and different individuals will experience different kinds and amounts of pleasure in the same situation. Many pleasurable experiences are associated with satisfying basic biological drives, such as eating, exercise, hygiene, and sex.[2] The appreciation of cultural artifacts and activities such as art, music, dancing, and literature is often pleasurable.[2]

Based upon the incentive salience model of reward – the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior[2] – an intrinsic reward has two components: a "wanting" or desire component which is reflected in approach behavior and a "liking" or pleasure component that is reflected in consummatory behavior.[2] While all pleasurable stimuli are rewards, some rewards do not evoke pleasure.[2]

The Muse, autoeroticism in art, modeled by Nina Longshadow at Opus