The purpose of anthropology is to make the world safe for human differences.-Ruth Benedict
In my research, the Evidence clearly shows the "Third Gender type as always existed as a part of Nature, in small percent yet,always there. My guess as form of peace keeping,birth control,sexual outlet, defense.and evolved naturally. due to fact common in every part of world./ without prior contact.
I do believe in the "Berdache Ways", there where likely to be ones whom selected only one partner,those whom played a role more like myself,that stayed single and where available to a certain group of the tribe.for example traveled on a hunting party; thus available for the men(sexually),and could cook and hunt as well.
For myself due to the Fact,I was quite comfortable modeling nude in front of a group of Artists/people, it came easy to develop into being in a setting that involved " a group of males,( I consented to )to submit to as a male in the "female role" .I very much came to desire this setting if could, yet in a very much ,selected group.Where another berdache would not be comfortable in this setting.
We must remember "Berdache" was what the French where calling the "Native American"
Among the Zunis, the death of a berdache like We'wha elicited "universal regret and distress." But from the Spanish and Anglo-Americans who overran the Southwest, berdaches often evoked dismay, disgust, anger, or, at the least, ridicule. Berdaches were anomalies -- freaks of nature, demons, deviants, perverts, sinners, corrupters. They committed the "nefarious vice, " the "abominable sin." Over the centuries, Europeans have resorted to a bewildering variety of terms to describe them -- in Spanish, soméjticos (sodomites), amarionadas (from Mary, meaning "effeminate), mujerados (literally "made women"), putos (male prostitutes), and bardajes (from "bardaj," Persian and Arabic for "slave" or "kept boy"), and in English, "hermaphrodites," "sodomites," "men-women," "inverts," "homosexuals," "transvestites," and "transsexuals." - Will Roscoe
There is an old joke that the typical Zuni household consists of a mother, father, children, and an anthropologist. In fact, the Zunis are one of the most written-about tribes in the world. . . . It was with genuine disappointment, then, that I came to realize how often the impact of these outsiders on the objects of their fascination has been disruptive and detrimental. Despite their admiration of the Pueblos, early anthropologists more often bolstered the image of the vanishing Indian than challenged it. . . .
Early observers were convinced that the cause of science and the immenent disappearance of tribal cultures justified their actions. . . . Such predictions enact what James Clifford has termed the redemptive allegory of anthropology -- the assumption that the "primitive" cultures are doomed to disappear except for those artifacts "rescued" by Western scientists. Such predictions are not only self-serving -- since they inflate the importance of the fieldworkers's reports -- they can also be self-fulfilling. They sustain and foster the idea of Indians as a vanishing race by referring only to their past.
The alternative view, however, challenges many comfortable assumptions: that there are neither primitive nor civilized, inferior nor superior, simple nor advanced societies -- only different ones. This view requires learning to think in "plurals" -- imagining the multiple histories and cultural stories of human societies in every part of the world as parallel, equal developments intersecting without necessarily merging, and associating non-Western societies such as Zuni with the future of the planet instead of its past. We must question the assumption that change means the loss of something essential and find ways to discuss cultural differences without encasing them in value-ladened descriptions.
----------------------I think, so many forget we are as much a part of our Past as we are a part of our Present--------------------------me-------
A large proportion of Native American tribes acknowledged a gender role that did not conform to Euro-American notions of male and female. This gender role, generically referred to as berdache
I do know, when one of my men met me at the door,and I was dressed like this,our "roles where known", call it script,or what you will, yet he was Man,I was Lady
George Catlin was a painter from Pennsylvania, USA. His works focused on Native American life and culture as he was interested in capturing North America’s “vanishing race” and spent weeks sketching and painting among indigenous folks to capture their “untouched” lifestyles. His most prolific expedition was with William Clark up the Mississippi River Territories of the United States started in 1830. While he documented tribes he visited, he was hostile toward non-european customs and wrote anti-two spirit sentiments toward the Sac and Fox village he visited.
Can you guess why Catlin was hostile toward the "berdache"?, do think Catlin was a well developed person psychologically?
excerpt from "Days Without End ";Chiefs and warriors kept winkte as sexual partners alongside their other wives, and they were sometimes believed to have special spiritual powers.- very much a role I played with many
But the colonizers reactions toward Two-Spirit people can be summed up by the words of Antonio de la Calancha, a Spanish official in Lima. Calancha wrote that during Vasco Nuñez de Balboa´s expedition across Panama, Balboa “saw men dressed like women; Balboa learnt that they were sodomites and threw the king and forty others to be eaten by his dogs, a fine action of an honorable and Catholic Spaniard.”
This was not an isolated attack. When the Spaniards invaded the Antilles and Louisiana, “they found men dressed as women who were respected by their societies. Thinking they were hermaphrodites, or homosexuals, they slew them.”…I learned that the colonizers´ efforts to outlaw, punish, and slaughter the Two-Spirits within those nations had also met with fierce resistance. Conquistador Nuño de Guzman recorded in 1530 that the last person taken prisoner after a battle, who had “fought most courageously, was a man in the habit of a woman…”
Chrystos,a brilliant Two-Spirit poet and writer from the Menominee nation, offered me this understanding: “Life among First Nation people, before first contact, is hard to reconstruct. There´s been so much abuse of traditional life by the Christian Church. But certain things have filtered down to us. Most of the nations that I know of traditionally have more than two genders. It varies from tribe to tribe. The concept of Two-Spiritedhness is a rather rough translation into English of that idea…The whole concept of gender is more fluid in traditional life…People may choose their gender according to their dreams, for example. So even the idea that your gender is something you dream about is not even a concept in Western culture – which posits you are born a certain biological sex and therefore there´s a role you must step into and follow pretty rigidly for the rest of your life. That´s how we got the concept of queer…The gender fluidity is part of a larger concept, which I guess the most accurate English word for is “tolerance”. It is a whole different way of conceiving how to be in a world with other people.”Chrystos told me about her Navajo friend Wesley Thomas, who describes himself as nadleeh-like. A male nadleeh, she said, “would manifest in the world as a female and take a husband and participate in tribal life as a female person.” I emailed Wesley….for more information about the nadleeh tradition. He wrote back that “nadleeh was a category for women who were/are masculine and also feminine males.” The concept of Nadleeh…is incorporated into Navajo origin or creation stories…”part of the normal Navajo culture, from the Navajo point of view, through the nineteenth century. It began changing during the first half of the twentieth century due to the introduction of Western education, and most of all, Christianity. Nadleeh since they has moved underground.”- Transgender Warriors – Making History from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman.
Why understanding the "Berdache Way" can be so important for Society in general ,as a Whole
♥ One thing I can think of rather quickly, it can humble us all, by realizing that other cultures we thought savage,at early contact,say like the "Zuni culture", as Albert Einstein commented ...a highly developed culture,in regard to Realizing,and Nuturing the diversity of Humanity.
Somewhere in a group of islands in the South Pacific, a class of men who display effeminate behaviours and portray atypical masculine roles forms an integral part of traditional culture and greater social structure. They are the fa’afafine of the Independent State of Samoa, the American Samoa, and in several Samoan diaspora including New Zealand.
An etymological understanding of the causative prefix fa’a and the word fafine provides a direct English translation that means “in the manner of a woman.” Nonetheless, the terminology or label ascribed to these men is revealing of their recognised status as a third gender. Their acknowledged status in the society comes from their established and important role in the traditional Samoan family systems.
Scholars who have studied the Samoan culture describe the fa’afafine as hard working and dedicated members of the family. In their study, Nancy H. Bartlett and Paul L. Vasey mentioned that these individuals display an array of behaviours that range from extravagantly feminine to mundane masculine. Their sexual orientation resembles typical homosexuals as evident from their exclusive sexual relationships with men.
However, it is important to delineate the difference between the fa’afafine and the Western concept of homosexuals. In Samoa, the words “gay” or “homosexual” are inexistent. Oppressive cultures in other parts of the world consider homosexuality as unnatural and people who have identified themselves as homosexuals are often perceived with contempt and discrimination. But the Samoan culture is different. Instead, the fa’afafine is a true third gender with an established identity and role that first emerged at least during the early 20th century. Researchers often replace the word homosexuality with the word androphilia to describe a universal homosexual-like sexual orientation and behaviours.
I thought important,one knows these terms;
Androphilia and gynephilia are terms used in behavioral science to describe sexual orientation, as an alternative to a gender binary homosexual and heterosexual conceptualization. Androphilia describes sexual attraction to men or masculinity; gynephilia describes the sexual attraction to women or femininity. Ambiphilia describes the combination of both androphilia and gynephilia in a given individual, or bisexuality.
The terms are objectively used for identifying a person's object of attraction without attributing a sex assignment or gender identity to the person. This can avoid bias inherent in normative conceptualizations of human sexuality, avoid confusion and offense when describing people in non-western cultures, as well as when describing intersex and transgender people, especially those who are nonbinary or otherwise falling outside the gender binary.
As a child, Lind asked others to call her by Jennie instead of Earl, and she spent much more time with girls than with boys. She became very shy and introverted when her parents sent her off to an all boys school and also became very depressed, considering suicide. Lind realized at a young age that she was an androgyne looking to change from male to female. At the time, the term transgender was not prevalent; instead words such as "androgyne", "invert" and "fairie" were used. She struggled throughout her life up to her late twenties with her extreme desire to perform fellatio, claiming to have partaken in over sixteen hundred sexual encounters in the span of a dozen years.
Her goal in writing her book was to make her trials well-known and to rally the support of Americans to create an accepting environment for young adults who do not adhere to gender and sexual norms because that was what she would have wanted for herself, and she wanted to prevent them from committing suicide June discusses her desires, which she struggled with because they were so different to what was considered normal. -Wikipedia
Though confusing, even to myself , for example if I take say the The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) test, every time I take it, or different version of it, I always score very high as psychologically feminine, not so called Androgyny.
------------------------------Why the same sex marriage issue represents how civilized we really are-------------------
♥ For myself, it represents one more step out of " Plato's Cave "