Imagine asking yourself   " why do I go to work ", then list all the Reasons you can.

                                                  List all the Reasons, you even think life is Worth Living

Beyond Reason-transcending reason


4. Relevant to human concerns; e.g., what good is it, what can it be used for, is it good for or dangerous to people, etc.

                                                                 Transcending to;



                                                      4. Human-irrelevant.( no longer need a Reason to accept reality,or something as it;                                                                                                                    simply is.



What is less well-known is that Maslow amended his model near the end of his life, and so the conventional portrayal of his hierarchy is incomplete. In his later thinking, he argued that there is a higher level of development, what he called self-transcendence. We achieve this level by focusing on things beyond the self like altruism, spiritual awakening, liberation from egocentricity, and the unity of being. Here is how he put it:

Transcendence refers to the very highest and most inclusive or holistic levels of human consciousness, behaving and relating, as ends rather than means, to oneself, to significant others, to human beings in general, to other species, to nature, and to the cosmos. (The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, New York, 1971, p. 269.)

Notice that placing self-transcendence above self-actualization results in a radically different model. While self-actualization refers to fulfilling your own potential, self-transcendence refers literally to transcending the self. And if successful, self-trancenders often have what Maslow called peak experiences, in which they transcend the individual ego. In such mystical, aesthetic, or emotional states one feels intense joy, peace, well-being, and an awareness of ultimate truth and the unity of all things.

Maslow also believed that such states aren’t always transitory—some people might be able to readily access them. This led him to define another term, “plateau experience.” These are more lasting, serene cognitive states, as opposed to peak experiences which tend to be mostly emotional and temporary. Moreover, in plateau experiences, one feels not only ecstasy but the sadness that comes with realizing that others don’t have such experiences. While Maslow believed that self-actualized, mature people are those most likely to have these self-transcendent experiences, he also felt that everyone was (potentially) capable of having them.

Given that Maslow’s humanistic psychology emphasized self-actualization and what is right with people, it isn’t surprising that his later transpersonal psychology explored extreme wellness or optimal well-being. This took the form of interest in persons who have expanded their normal sense of identity to experience the transpersonal or the underlying unity of all reality. (Thus the connection between transpersonal psychology, and the mystical and meditative traditions of many of the world’s religions.)

Let me conclude by looking at two succinct and eloquent statements contrasting self-actualization and self-transcendence. The first is from Mark Koltko-Rivera’s excellent summary of the Maslow’s later thought in: “Rediscovering the Later Version of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Self-Transcendence and Opportunities for Theory, Research, and Unification.” Koltko-Rivera says:

At the level of self-actualization, the individual works to actualize the individual’s own potential [whereas] at the level of transcendence, the individual’s own needs are put aside, to a great extent, in favor of service to others …

The second is from Viktor Frankl. (I written on Frankl previously in: “Summary of Mans’ Search For Meaning” and “Summary of Frankl on Tragic Optimism.”) In Man’s Search for Meaning, one of the most profound books I’ve ever read, Frankl writes:

… the real aim of human existence cannot be found in what is called self-actualization. Human existence is essentially self-transcendence rather than self-actualization. Self-actualization is not a possible aim at all; for the simple reason that the more a [person] would strive for it, the more [they] would miss it. For only to the extent to which [people] commit [themselves] to the fulfillment of [their] life’s meaning, to this extent [they] also actualize [themselves.] In other words, self-actualization cannot be attained if it is made an end in itself, but only as a side-effect of self-transcendence.

                                           This lines up almost perfectly with what I think Maslow had in mind.


                                               -not susceptible to corruption, especially by bribery-

    I do know until we start raising our children to be Leaders, and of the Being-Cognitive type

                                                        On site pdf of bestselfusa.com/being-cognition-vs-deficiency-cognition


              I do Know our current Leaders (Congress,Surpreme Court,every aspect of Leadership,from your Boss, your children's                         teachers all, or majority of, are seeing the World from a Deficiency Cognition point of view

                                                      - Examples-                                                                                                                      


              Being-Cognition                   Seen as whole, as complete, self-sufficient, as unitary. Either Cosmic Consciousness (Bucks), in which whole cosmos is perceived as single thing with oneself belonging in it; or else the person, object, or portion of the world seen is seen as if it were the whole world, i.e., rest of world is forgotten. Integrative perceiving of unities. Unity of the world or object perceived.


            Deficiency Cognition       Seen as part, as incomplete, not self-sufficient, as dependent upon other things.