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Carl Jung's Ideas and Theories

Dictionary of Jungian Terms

Some of the Jungian terms and concepts are explained below.

Active imagination. Method of assimilation of unconscious contents through their experimentation as fantasies in the wakeful state.

Amplification. Method of association in the interpretation of dreams based on comparative studies of mythology, religion, fairy tales, alchemy, astrology etc.

Analytical psychology. Derived from psychoanalysis, a. p. designates Carl Jung's contributions. See also psychoanalysis.

Anima. The archetype of female in man.

Animus. The archetype of male in woman.

Anthropos. Primordial man, archetypal image of wholeness in alchemy, religion, and Gnostic philosophy. See also wholeness.

Archetype. Primary structural element of human psyche. The archetype is a predisposition for specific human experiences such as birth, motherhood, death, love etc. It is on the psychic level the correspondence of the pattern of behavior of biologists.

Archetypal image. The form or representation taken by the archetype in dreams, fantasies, cultural and religious (mythical) products.

Assimilation. The process of conscious integration of the contents of the personal and collective unconscious. The assimilation is the result of conscious elaboration (insight) in the psychotherapeutic process.

Collective unconscious. Distinctive from the personal unconscious, consists in archetypes or primordial images. See also personal unconscious.

Compensation. A natural process of maintaining a certain balance in the psyche. See also homeostasis.

Complex. An emotionally charged group of ideas or images. A fragmented personality unknown to the individual's ego-consciousness.

Coniunctio. Or "conjunction", term used in alchemy to define the union of opposites. From the Jungian's psychological point of view, it means the union of the conscious and unconscious, process that is also called individuation. See also individuation.

Constellation. Activation of a psychic personal complex or an archetypal content.

Dream. Spontaneous and natural manifestation of the psyche.

Enantiodromia. According to Jung, the path to individuation leads one to opposing sides within the psyche.

Free associations - Freudian method in dream interpretation consisting in asking the dreamer to provide his own ideas and memories related to the fragments of the dream. The method has been used by Jung himself and later on completed with his own amplification approach. See also amplification.

Homeostasis. Concept borrowed by Jung from the biology to define the compensatory function of human psyche that aims at the maintaining of a certain equilibrium in the psyche. See also compensation.

Individuation. Described by Jung as the process of synthesis of the Self which consists mainly of the union of the unconscious and the consciousness. See also collective unconscious.

Inflation. Following the identification with an archetypal image, the effect of this identification is to exaggerate the proportions of the Ego.

Libido. Tendency towards, lust, psychic energy. For Jung the libido is not only sexual, while Freud considers it is only sexual.

Mandala. Graphical representation of the center or the Self. See also center and self.

Mystical participation. Term taken from anthropology, it defines the process of identification of the human subject with external phenomena, objects or beings with the aim of taking over or determining specific effects.

Neurosis. Mental disorder characterized in particular by a temporary or permanent incapacity to adapt to certain requirements of the external or inner world (soul). Inhibitions, Phobias, Sexual Deficiencies, etc. Are some of the symptoms specific to neurosis.

Numinous. Defines the quality of archetypal images to inspire powerful feelings of panic, devotion etc.

Persona. Mask of the Ego, its social expression, the way the others see us.

Personal unconscious. The Freudian unconscious, made of repressed wishes, distinctive from the collective (archetypal) unconscious. See also collective unconscious.

Philosophical stone. Alchemist term identified by Jung with the process of individuation and accomplishment of the Self. See also self.

Projection. Autonomous process by which features (usually repressed) of the Ego are assigned to other people (external objects).

Prospective aspect - In the dream interpretation method, refers to the idea of dreams pointing to the future rather than to the past events (as with Sigmund Freud).

Psychoanalysis. The term designates several aspects: specific methods of investigation of the mind, a psychotherapeutic technique based on these methods and the sum of all the knowledge derived from the first two. Psychoanalysis was created by Sigmund Freud.

Quaternity. A visual representation of the psychic totality through square images.

Repression. In Sigmund Freud's view is a defensive mechanism that aims at rejecting the immoral unconscious representations trying to access the conscious mind. The repressed is the byproduct of the repression.

Self. The archetype of psychic Totality, according to Jung.

Shadow. Containing the repressed, "bad" parts of the individual personality, the shadow is the counterpart of the Freudian unconscious. There is also an archetypal shadow (personified by demons and Satan-like figures in mythology and religion).

Symbol. Unlike the Freudian definition, the symbol for Jung is the representation of some psychical representative unknown by the conscious mind, usually an instance of the Self (or the archetype of the center).

Synchronicity. A meaningful, acausal, connection between two or more psychic and physical events.

Teleology. Jung's approach of teleology is based on his immense experience with his patients and dream analysis. He said he found psychic processes leading to a goal which is not influenced by outer causes. This goal is related to the archetypes and more especially to the realization of the Self or the psychic wholeness. See also self and wholeness.

Totality. See Wholeness.

Transcendent function. Arises from the meeting of the consciousness and the unconscious. It is a psychic process of transition from the stagnant attitude of the patient to a new and better one inspired by the constructive (symbolic) analysis of the unconscious contents that manifest in dreams. The psychotherapist mediates this process.

Trickster. Archetypal figure, embodiment of the a undifferentiated consciousness of the primitive man coming from his identification with animals. It can be equated with the shadow. See shadow.

Unconscious. The term refers to that part of the mind that is not directly accessible to consciousness. Psychoanalysis describes for the first time the contents of the unconscious and proposes exploration techniques. See also personal and collective unconscious.

Wholeness. Psychic stage in which the union of the unconscious with the consciousness has been achieved. It is the final aim of Jung's psychotherapy. See also unconscious.

Wise Old Man. Archetypal image that embodies the meaning. In the individuation process, the Wise Old Man embodies the collective unconscious or the Self. See also individuation process.

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Jung's Shadow Idea and Theory

If I read about; " The Shadow",  I agree that we have a aspect of our minds that is more primitive or if one views " Spiral Dynamics model", certainly we have innate qualities of the lowest stages, starting at beige .

      However if people read so much on the Internet about the "Shadow ", referring it to as our "evil "side,bad side,then people become afraid to encounter it, oppress  it even more.

     I personally wish we could erase the word evil away,with it's super-natural ideas ,religious ideaology etc. Long ago I realized Nature has not evil, and that evil is a term constructed by Human beings,to explain what can't be explained, yet all so called evil acts are committed by Humans, I also believe religions have used it to terrorize the people. A question one might ask; Say a student goes in as school and shots people ,kills!,,is this student "evil"?, I would say No, they are simply very mentally ill. Every body wants to call Hilter and the Nazi's evil, No I would say,,They where collectively very mental ill,completely un-able to live as socially advanced beings.Look at the World today,you see Leaders leading whom,are very lowly self-actualized-leading by "Force", even in the United States,only 153 year ago,we had "Slaves",is the evil, or so egocentric,that one thinks they may own another human-being!,and was socially accepted!, that a form of very low level thinking,,read about Chimpanzee,very egocentric,male dominant etc, verse the Bonobo .We have been a lot more as Chimpanzee(Pan troglodytes) ,then  bonobo (Pan paniscus), we need to change direction.

     That off my chest ,a Question I have to ask,,,concerning Jung,,how religion bias was he? and another Question; "If we are to truly make gains in our ability to see "Nature" as it is,in it's absolute truth,be of high level thinking beings, must we not exclude, all myth, pre-conceived notions of religions,all socially constructed ,ego embraced ideologies ?

             Something to ponder 

There’s a Cherokee story about two wolves, and it serves as an excellent parable. It goes something like this:

One evening, an elderly Cherokee brave told his grandson about a battle that goes on inside people.

He said, “my son, the battle is between two ‘wolves’ inside us all. One is evil. It is anger, envy, jealousy, sorrow, regret, greed, arrogance, self-pity, guilt, resentment, inferiority, lies, false pride, superiority, and ego.

The other is good. It is joy, peace love, hope serenity, humility, kindness, benevolence, empathy, generosity, truth, compassion, and faith.”

The grandson though about it for a minute and then asked his grandfather, “which wolf wins?”

The old Cherokee simply replied, “the one that you feed.”



If One studies the Wolf,ones see,a amazing social structure, and where if one wolf can't be social,they must go!

I think Emerald,in this video explains well, and doesn't portray the "Shadow" ,as a all evil negative thing.