MichaelEmeryArt

Cultures of Humanity

Ivan Pavlov

Pavlovian culture

The Pavlovian is an Upper Paleolithic culture, a variant of the Gravettian, that existed in the region of Moravia, northern Austria and southern Poland around 29,000 – 25,000 years BP. The culture used sophisticated stone age technology to survive in the tundra on the fringe of the ice sheets around the Last Glacial Maximum. Its economy was principally based on the hunting of mammoth herds for meat, fat fuel, hides for tents and large bones and tusks for building winter shelters.[1][2]

Its name is derived from the village of Pavlov, in the Pavlov Hills, next to Dolní Věstonice in southern Moravia. The site was excavated in 1952 by the Czechoslovakian archaeologist Bohuslav Klima. Another important Pavlovian site is Předmostí, now part of the town of Přerov.

Excavation has yielded flint implements, polished and drilled stone artifacts, bone spearheads, needles, digging tools, flutes, bone ornaments, drilled animal teeth, and seashells. Art or religious finds are bone carvings and figurines of humans and animals made of mammoth tusk, stone, and fired clay.[3] Textile impression made into wet clay give the oldest proof of the existence of weaving by humans.[4]

I have been studying Chinese Writing in regards to it's not being Logo-centric,which many believe English is

Childhood in Maya society

Learning

Children in many Maya communities often engage in different socialization patterns than those commonly found in European-American communities.[5] Specifically, Maya cultures commonly emphasize the primacy of community activities (in which adults and children are participants), the importance of parental beliefs, and the independence of children's motivation in their socialization.[6][7] Children in Maya communities develop within the context of work and other family activities.[5] They commonly learn through observing and engaging in work with others.[6]

Children in modern-day Maya communities observe and participate in work with people of all ages.[8] Young children in Maya communities such as San Pedro La Laguna have been observed listening in on the work of older children, adults, and elders.[8] These children are expected to observe the activities going on around them in order for their learning to take place.[4] The mix of interaction between age groups in Maya communities is important to their learning. Age segregation does not play an active role in the learning patterns of Maya children, as they interact with both adults and children of all ages.[9] Maya siblings also play an active role in directing each other’s learning.[10]

Children in Maya communities also observe and participate in adult work in order to become active members in their community.[11] Though children in European American communities do not engage in as much productive or goal-driven work, Maya children see this work as embodying their sense of self-worth.[12] Maya children engage in less imaginary play than children from many middle-class Western communities.[9] When European-American adults play with children, the play is seen as an educational exercise, but play that Maya children partake in is often an emulation of mature work happening around them[13] For example, a child will pretend to "weave" on a make-believe loom, or "wash clothes" by pouring water on a cloth.[14] In this way, Maya children are learning through play.

Engaging in play that emulates work, and providing actual contributions to work, are characteristic of a style of learning referred to as Learning by Observing and Pitching In (which was previously called Intent Community Participation[15]). This approach involves the learner observing and listening, directed by their own initiative and concentration. This individual drive to learn is coupled with the learner’s expected participation in shared endeavors. In other words, Maya children learn through Intent Community Participation because they are self-motivated to learn, and are included and given responsibilities. Maya children are respected as capable contributors to their community from as young as age 3 or 4.[15]

This style of learning can be contrasted with other learning styles, such as assembly-line instruction.[15] Assembly-line instruction is the approach taken by most Westernized schooling. Assembly-line instruction is based on the transmission of knowledge from experts to subordinates, in a way that does not facilitate purposeful activity. Maya Children do not participate primarily in this style of learning, because they learn through inclusion and hands-on experience. Because of this form of learning, Mayan children are much more observant in their environment as compared to European-American children.[citation needed] Learning through observation and participation develops skills such as dual attentiveness which supports their way of life and learning. Through methods such as Learning by Observing and Pitching In, Maya children work as a community to build their skills for contributing in their community.