Sexually Education related sites

From the time they are born, children are taught that there are girls and there are boys. But our history books, like our communities, are rich with people who have blurred, blended or crossed those lines. While gender is traditionally presented to us as either male or female — mutually exclusive and unchangeable opposites — the truth is that gender is a rich, broad spectrum that comes in as many forms as there are people.
For many, expressing gender is unconscious. It’s as simple as styling your hair or tying a tie. It causes no angst or uncertainty.
But for those whose gender identity or innate sense of their own gender doesn’t match with that assigned to them at birth, unraveling and expressing it can be complex and difficult.
Many of these individuals come to identify as “transgender,” an umbrella term that describes a wide range of people who experience or express their gender in different, sometimes non-traditional ways.
Those of us who identify as transgender must make deeply personal decisions about when and even whether to disclose and be open about who we are with ourselves and others — even when it isn’t easy.
We express that openness by being our full and complete selves among our friends, our family, our co-workers and, sometimes, even strangers.
Each of us makes decisions about meeting this challenge in our own way and in our own time. Throughout the process of self-discovery and disclosure, you should always be in the driver’s seat about how, where, when and with whom you choose to be open.
From -This guide aims to help you and your loved ones through that process in realistic and practical terms. It acknowledges that the experience of coming out or disclosure covers the full spectrum of human emotion — from paralyzing fear to unbounded euphoria.
The Human Rights Campaign Foundation hopes this guide helps you meet the challenges and opportunities that living as authentically as possible can offer to each of us.TRANS GENDER Visibility/pdf
Stop in sign Language

I truly believe this,Stop should be clearly taught,learned and understood by everyone from a early age,when it comes to any form of sexual contact,of all of Natures creatures Human being are the only species, for some reason think they can have "Non-Consenting sex"-rape. That's why ,in my opinion Rape is not only a crime against humanity,it is a crime against "Nature" or as many call " God"

Sexuality is one of the fundamental drives behind everyone’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. It defines the means of biological reproduction, describes psychological and sociological representations of self, and orients a person’s attraction to others. Further, it shapes the brain and body to be pleasure-seeking. Yet, as important as sexuality is to being human, it is often viewed as a taboo topic for personal or scientific inquiry.

On Being Normal: Variations in Sex, Gender, and Sexual Orientation

Only the human mind invents categories and tries to force facts into separated pigeon-holes. The living world is a continuum in each and every one of its aspects. The sooner we learn this concerning human sexual behavior, the sooner we shall reach a sound understanding of the realities of sex.” (Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948, pp. 638–639)

We live in an era when sex, gender, and sexual orientation are controversial religious and political issues. Some nations have laws against homosexuality, while others have laws protecting same-sex marriages. At a time when there seems to be little agreement among religious and political groups, it makes sense to wonder, “What is normal?” and, “Who decides?”

The international scientific and medical communities (e.g., World Health Organization, World Medical Association, World Psychiatric Association, Association for Psychological Science) view variations of sex, gender, and sexual orientation as normal. Furthermore, variations of sex, gender, and sexual orientation occur naturally throughout the animal kingdom. More than 500 animal species have homosexual or bisexual orientations (Lehrer, 2006). More than 65,000 animal species are intersex—born with either an absence or some combination of male and female reproductive organs, sex hormones, or sex chromosomes (Jarne & Auld, 2006). In humans, intersex individuals make up about two percent—more than 150 million people—of the world’s population (Blackless et al., 2000). There are dozens of intersex conditions, such as Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Turner’s Syndrome (Lee et al., 2006). The term “syndrome” can be misleading; although intersex individuals may have physical limitations (e.g., about a third of Turner’s individuals have heart defects; Matura et al., 2007), they otherwise lead relatively normal intellectual, personal, and social lives. In any case, intersex individuals demonstrate the diverse variations of biological sex.

Just as biological sex varies more widely than is commonly thought, so too does gender. Cisgender individuals’ gender identities correspond with their birth sexes, whereas transgender individuals’ gender identities do not correspond with their birth sexes. Because gender is so deeply ingrained culturally, rates of transgender individuals vary widely around the world (see Table 1).

Table 1: Nations vary in the number of transgender people found in their populations (De Gascun et al., 2006; Dulko & Imielinskia, 2004; Landen et al., 1996; Okabe et al., 2008, Conron et al., 2012; Winter, 2009).

Although incidence rates of transgender individuals differ significantly between cultures, transgender females (TGFs)—whose birth sex was male—are by far the most frequent type of transgender individuals in any culture. Of the 18 countries studied by Meier and Labuski (2013), 16 of them had higher rates of TGFs than transgender males (TGMs)—whose birth sex was female— and the 18 country TGF to TGM ratio was 3 to 1. TGFs have diverse levels of androgyny—having both feminine and masculine characteristics. For example, five percent of the Samoan population are TGFs referred to as fa'afafine, who range in androgyny from mostly masculine to mostly feminine (Tan, 2016); in Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, TGFs are referred to as hijras, recognized by their governments as a third gender, and range in androgyny from only having a few masculine characteristics to being entirely feminine (Pasquesoone, 2014); and as many as six percent of biological males living in Oaxaca, Mexico are TGFs referred to as muxes, who range in androgyny from mostly masculine to mostly feminine (Stephen, 2002).

A hijra dancer with a feminine appearance wearing eyeliner, lipstick, and earrings.
Figure 2: Hijra Dancer in Nepal. [Image: Adam Jones, https://goo.gl/TCxrVY, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://goo.gl/eEDNLy]

Sexual orientation is as diverse as gender identity. Instead of thinking of sexual orientation as being two categories—homosexual and heterosexual—Kinsey argued that it’s a continuum (Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948). He measured orientation on a continuum, using a 7-point Likert scale called the Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale, in which 0 is exclusively heterosexual, 3 is bisexual, and 6 is exclusively homosexual. Later researchers using this method have found 18% to 39% of Europeans and Americans identifying as somewhere between heterosexual and homosexual (Lucas et al., 2017; YouGov.com, 2015). These percentages drop dramatically (0.5% to 1.9%) when researchers force individuals to respond using only two categories (Copen, Chandra, & Febo-Vazquez, 2016; Gates, 2011).

What Are You Doing? A Brief Guide to Sexual Behavior

Just as we may wonder what characterizes particular gender or sexual orientations as “normal,” we might have similar questions about sexual behaviors. What is considered sexually normal depends on culture. Some cultures are sexually-restrictive—such as one extreme example off the coast of Ireland, studied in the mid-20th century, known as the island of Inis Beag. The inhabitants of Inis Beag detested nudity and viewed sex as a necessary evil for the sole purpose of reproduction. They wore clothes when they bathed and even while having sex. Further, sex education was nonexistent, as was breast feeding (Messenger, 1989). By contrast, Mangaians, of the South Pacific island of A’ua’u, are an example of a highly sexually-permissive culture. Young Mangaian boys are encouraged to masturbate. By age 13, they’re instructed by older males on how to sexually perform and maximize orgasms for themselves and their partners. When the boys are a bit older, this formal instruction is replaced with hands-on coaching by older females. Young girls are also expected to explore their sexuality and develop a breadth of sexual knowledge before marriage (Marshall & Suggs, 1971). These cultures make clear that what are considered sexually normal behaviors depends on time and place.

Sexual behaviors are linked to, but distinct from, fantasies. Leitenberg and Henning (1995) define sexual fantasies as “any mental imagery that is sexually arousing.” One of the more common fantasies is the replacement fantasy—fantasizing about someone other than one’s current partner (Hicks & Leitenberg, 2001). In addition, more than 50% of people have forced-sex fantasies (Critelli & Bivona, 2008). However, this does not mean most of us want to be cheating on our partners or be involved in sexual assault. Sexual fantasies are not equal to sexual behaviors.

Anal sex refers to penetration of the anus by an object. Anal sex is not exclusively a “homosexual behavior.” The anus has extensive sensory-nerve innervation and is often experienced as an erogenous zone, no matter where a person is on the Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale (Cordeau et al., 2014). When heterosexual people are asked about their sexual behaviors, more than a third (about 40%) of both males and females report having had anal sex at some time during their life (Chandra, Mosher, & Copen, 2011; Copen, Chandra, & Febo-Vazquez, 2016). Comparatively, when homosexual men are asked about their most recent sexual behaviors, more than a third (37%) report having had anal sex (Rosenberger et al., 2011). Like heterosexual people, homosexual people engage in a variety of sexual behaviors, the most frequent being masturbation, romantic kissing, and oral sex (Rosenberger et al., 2011). The prevalence of anal sex widely differs between cultures. For example, people in Greece and Italy report high rates of anal sex (greater than 50%), whereas people in China and India report low rates of anal sex (less than 15%; Durex, 2005).

Autogynephilia (Template:PronEng) (from Greek αὐτό (self), γῦνή (woman) and φῖλία (love) — "love of oneself as a woman") is the term coined in 1989 by Ray Blanchard to refer to "a man's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman

Autogynephilia is a fetishistic sexual attraction to the idea of oneself as a woman. The basic idea behind Blanchard’s autogynephilia model is that “autogynephilic transsexuals” are essentially in love with the image of themselves as women. That this is their primary “sexual orientation”, and that they act in order to attain the object of this desire. I can agree that this applies to me ,thus my strong desire to be as a "Woman" and the fact that my first sexual experience was with a person my age(13 years old),,he was black,and he treated me as his girl-friend,I performed "Fellatio" on him,and he breed me anally.,I think this is a big part why I am only attracted to black males.

Down-low is an African American slang term that refers to a subculture of men who usually identify as heterosexual, but who have sex with men; some avoid sharing this information even if they have female sexual partner(s). The term is also used to refer to a related sexual identity.

Downlow" as closeted homosexuality evolved from an earlier use of the term which simply meant "secret" [3] (as in "keep it on the down-low").[4] It is used as a noun, adjective and adverb all pertaining to keeping information secret.[4] Cassell's Dictionary of Slang even records "d.l.c." as a down-low conversation.[4] It is used between two people, as in "let's keep this between the two of us." During the 90's it began to be used more frequently in relation to closeted homosexual sex.

In 1997 ,I met a black male,college student,while posing for a college life drawing class,,he is the first person,and several of his friends(they gang-banged me routinely),They claimed to all be heterosexual,and where just "breeding" me for fun,which was understood by all ,and I just wanted,that to at time.,Anyway ,I often have wondered why it was so easy then to meet Black guys,yet not now?.Cultural,things change ?.

Please "Breed"-me in sign Lanuage

Non-Binary Defined

Most people – including most transgender people – are either male or female. But some people don't neatly fit into the categories of "man" or "woman," or “male” or “female.” For example, some people have a gender that blends elements of being a man or a woman, or a gender that is different than either male or female. Some people don't identify with any gender. Some people's gender changes over time.

People whose gender is not male or female use many different terms to describe themselves, with non-binary being one of the most common. Other terms include genderqueer, agender, bigender, and more. None of these terms mean exactly the same thing – but all speak to an experience of gender that is not simply male or female.

Why “Non-Binary”?

Some societies – like ours – tend to recognize just two genders, male and female. The idea that there are only two genders is sometimes called a “gender binary,” because binary means “having two parts” (male and female). Therefore, “non-binary” is one term people use to describe genders that don’t fall into one of these two categories, male or female.

Basic Facts about Non-Binary People

Non-binary people are nothing new. Non-binary people aren’t confused about their gender identity or following a new fad – non-binary identities have been recognized for millennia by cultures and societies around the world.

Some, but not all, non-binary people undergo medical procedures to make their bodies more congruent with their gender identity. While not all non-binary people need medical care to live a fulfilling life, it’s critical and even life-saving for many.

Most transgender people are not non-binary. While some transgender people are non-binary, most transgender people have a gender identity that is either male or female, and should be treated like any other man or woman.

Being non-binary is not the same thing as being intersex. Intersex people have anatomy or genes that don’t fit typical definitions of male and female. Most intersex people identify as either men or women. Non-binary people are usually not intersex: they’re usually born with bodies that may fit typical definitions of male and female, but their innate gender identity is something other than male or female.

Judith Butler's theory of gender performativity begins by quoting Simone de Beauvoir's claim:

"...one is not born, but, rather, becomes a woman."[8]

The eternal feminine is a psychological archetype or philosophical principle that idealizes an immutable concept of "woman". It is one component of gender essentialism, the belief that men and women have different core "essences" that cannot be altered by time or environment.[1] The conceptual ideal was particularly vivid in the 19th century, when women were often depicted as angelic, responsible for drawing men upward on a moral and spiritual path.[2] Among those virtues variously regarded as essentially feminine are "modesty, gracefulness, purity, delicacy, civility, compliancy, reticence, chastity, affability, [and] politeness".[3]

The concept of the "eternal feminine" (German: das Ewig-Weibliche) was particularly important to Goethe, who introduces it at the end of Faust, Part 2.[4] For Goethe, "woman" symbolized pure contemplation, in contrast to masculine action.[5] The feminine principle is further articulated by Nietzsche within a continuity of life and death, based in large part on his readings of ancient Greek literature, since in Greek culture both childbirth and the care of the dead were managed by women.[6] Domesticity, and the power to redeem and serve as moral guardian, were also components of the "eternal feminine".[7] The virtues of women were inherently private, while those of men were public.[8]

Simone de Beauvoir regarded the "eternal feminine" as a patriarchal myth that constructs women as a passive "erotic, birthing or nurturing body" excluded from playing the role of a subject who experiences and acts.[9]

Preparing for Anal intercourse or just keeping clean

this is good example of being Open-minded,one has to be open-minded to learn anything new.

Since taking the sexual role solely/completely as Fem-male since 1997, being clean,preparing for anal sex has been a evolving under-taking,especially since it is so taboo,not very much factual and helpful imformation is to be found.So I have had to learn by trial and error,just through experience,I have had much practice,having had many men in my "bottom,thus many sizes and shapes etc.

At nearly the same time I started modeling nude for Art Classes(Life-Drawing),I started seeing men in the role of a "Fem-male"(1997),thus keeping my "Bottom" clean was a big concern, not only for Anal penetration ,for posing as well.

My Method, Preparing for Anal penetration:
1. I go to "poopy" first
2. lube my Bad-Dragon "Chance" (soft and medium size 10 inch insertable) with some vasoline or baby oil.then get it popped in my bottom..it does pop in ! do to soft head, just slowly move it in and out,do for few minutes,pull it out,wash it if need,then squirt aloe baby oil on it,insert,in and out a bit,.Then I have a Square Peg Slink(large,supersoft)this I can insert,up in myself about 16 inches,work "Slink" in and out until clean(I use the aloe baby oil....I can say I am many times cleaner then the average person using Toilet paper,I generally do this every night after using bathroom and before showering.Often if I am not to tired,I will use "Chance" in shower, to make sure I am as clean as I can be.

I personally would only recommend these two companys current,both are great products,both are made with Every Bad Dragon dildo and masturbator is hand-poured and ships from here in the USA with the highest quality US-made, platinum-cured, body-safe silicones available.
SquarePegToys® leads the way in innovation with dildos, sounds & sex toys created specifically for fetish play. Made in the USA from platinum-grade silicone, SquarePegToys® are unmatched in design, quality and safety
10 cm = 3.9 inch

The average penis is about 6 inch,so it is at that length not a real issue(everybody is different-for me it a penis probably doesn't hit the turn from rectum to sigmoid colon,if a guy is 7 to 8 inch this starts being felt and must be slow and well lubed,(should always use lube),if a man is very hard and thick,might simply be about 8 inch will go up in me,For example I routinely insert my "Chance" dildo all 10 inches without any discomfort,yet it is super soft, compared to my vixen outlaw which is 9' but much stiff-er both are premium silicone,I have a vixen "Slim" which is 8"x 1,5" insertable,,it is very easy going in,and would recommend to those new to anal sex.(for example width/thickness for me is the real issue, I can very easily deep-throat the "Slim" and my Square Peg "Slink",I can deep-throat 12" easily.)

"If it hurts Stop!",,just practice slowly!

My diet, like my dog George, is mainly same daily,and each meal,I seldom ever eat out,I make my own meals,thus I never get sick to stomach(or very,very rare)


This paper explores ways of working with men who have experienced child sexual abuse. It explores some of the difficulties that these men may face in our current social, political, and cultural context. The paper explores the practical implications of the fact that male sexual abuse occurs within a male-dominated culture and that the large majority of perpetrators are other men. It describes how, for men who have been subject to sexual abuse, dominant constructions of masculinity can contribute to the silencing of their experience and to stories of self blame. It explores the complex task that males who have experienced abuse from older men face in creating their own preferred masculine identity, and describes a number of therapeutic themes that Patrick O’Leary has found helpful in working with men on these issues.-Livingwell.org.au

Heteronormativity is the belief that people fall into distinct and complementary genders (male and female) with natural roles in life. It assumes that heterosexuality is the only sexual orientation or only norm, and that sexual and marital relations are most (or only) fitting between people of opposite sexes. A "heteronormative" view therefore involves alignment of biological sex, sexuality, gender identity and gender roles. Heteronormativity is often linked to heterosexism and homophobia.[1]

Androphilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal toward males whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal toward females. This study tested the adaptive feminine phenotype model of the evolution of male androphilia via kin selection, which posits that the development of an evolved disposition toward elevated kin-directed altruism among androphilic males is contingent on the behavioral expression of femininity. Gynephilic men, androphilic women, and androphilic men (N = 387) completed measures of childhood and adulthood gender expression and concern for kin’s well-being. Adulthood femininity correlated positively with uncle/aunt-like tendencies among androphilic men and women. Although androphilic women reported greater willingness to invest in nieces and nephews than gynephilic and androphilic men, mediation analyses indicated that adult femininity completely mediated these group differences. In addition, changes in the expression of femininity between childhood and adulthood were associated with parallel changes in concern for the well-being of kin among androphilic men. Thus, these findings suggest that femininity is key to the expression of kin-directed altruism among androphilic males and may have been important in the evolution of male androphilia.

Male androphilia (i.e., male sexual attraction to males) is an evolutionary paradox. It is unclear how genes for male androphilia persist given that androphilic males have lowered reproduction? Evidence suggests that ancestral androphilic males were transgendered. Hence, I address this paradox by focusing on a group of Samoan transgendered androphilic males (i.e., fa’afafine). Specifically, I show that male androphilia has consistent developmental correlates across Samoan and Western populations, indicating that fa’afafine provide a suitable model for the evolution of male androphilia across populations. In addition, I test hypotheses concerning the evolution of male androphilia. Fa’afafine’s mothers and grandmothers exhibit elevated reproduction. Also, compared to Samoan men and women, fa’afafine exhibit unique kin-investment cognition that would enhance indirect fitness. Elevated reproduction by female kin, and enhanced kin investments may, therefore, contribute to the evolution of male androphilia. Lastly, I outline a developmental model for this unique kin-investment cognition in androphilic males

Modern fa'afafine differ in two fundamental ways from their traditional counterparts. First, they are more likely to have chosen to live as women, and, secondly, they are more likely to be homosexual. These days, young Samoan boys who appear effeminate, or enjoy dressing as girls, may be recognised as fa'afafine by their parents. If they are, they will usually be neither encouraged nor discouraged to dress and behave as women. They will simply be allowed to follow the path they choose.

If it becomes apparent that a boy wants to become a fa'afafine, he will be taught the duties and crafts of women. Coupling those skills with the strengths of Samoan men can make a fa'afafine an extremely valuable member of society.

What is the aim of hormone therapy for trans people?

The aim of hormone therapy is to make you feel more at ease with yourself, both physically and psychologically.
You may be experiencing discomfort because you are not happy with your male or female appearance; or maybe you are not comfortable in your gender role as a man or as a woman. Perhaps both these factors – your appearance and your gender role – are in conflict with your inner sense of being a man or a women (your gender identity).
You may have lived with this conflict for many years and be desperate to get some help.

If this is how you are feeling, hormone treatment (testosterone if you are a trans man, and oestrogen if you are a trans woman) may help to overcome your distress. This kind of treatment is sometimes referred to as ‘cross-sex’ hormone therapy.

In addition, to testosterone or oestrogen, hormone ‘blockers’ may be taken in the early stages of treatment to interrupt the hormone production of your own body, so that the prescribed hormones can be more effective.

Hormone therapy is usually the first treatment that trans people want to have and, for some, it may be the only treatment they need. Some people find that they get sufficient relief from taking hormones so that they do not need to change their gender role or have surgery.

Hormone replacement therapy (male-to-female) Wikipedia

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) of the male-to-female (MTF) type is hormone replacement therapy and sex reassignment therapy used to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender people from masculine (or androgynous) to feminine. It is one of two types of HRT for transgender people (the other being female-to-male) and is predominantly used to treat transgender women. Some intersex people also receive this form of HRT, either starting in childhood to confirm the assigned sex or later if the assignment proves to be incorrect.

The purpose of this form of HRT is to cause the development of the secondary sex characteristics of the desired sex, such as breasts and a feminine pattern of hair, fat, and muscle distribution. It cannot undo many of the changes produced by naturally occurring puberty, which may necessitate surgery and other treatments (see below). The medications used in HRT of the MTF type include estrogens, antiandrogens, and progestogens.

While HRT cannot undo the effects of a person's first puberty, developing secondary sex characteristics associated with a different gender can relieve some or all of the distress and discomfort associated with gender dysphoria, and can help the person to "pass" or be seen as the gender they identify with. Introducing exogenous hormones into the body impacts it at every level and many patients report changes in energy levels, mood, appetite, etc. The goal of HRT, and indeed all somatic treatments, is to provide patients with a more satisfying body that is more congruent with their gender identity'

Medical uses


Hormone therapy for transgender individuals has been shown in medical literature to be safe when supervised by a qualified medical professional.[1]


A transgender woman before and after 28 months of HRT.

The main effects of HRT of the MTF type are as follows:[43]

  • Breast development and enlargement
  • Softening and thinning of the skin
  • Decreased body hair growth and density
  • Redistribution of body fat in a feminine pattern
  • Decreased muscle mass and strength
  • Widening of the hips (if epiphyseal closure has not yet occurred; see below)
  • Decreased acne, skin oiliness, scalp hair loss, and body odor
  • Decreased size of the penis, scrotum, testicles, and prostate:

    (Testes will lessen quite significantly in size. The production of testosterone and sperm is also greatly reduced. Penile size will also likely diminish. Sexual function will decrease, but the extent to which performance is affected is unpredictable. Erections may still continue, but will probably be less frequent, and not last as long, and in some cases may not be possible. Ejaculate will lessen, probably to the point of only producing a very small, clear discharge as a result of the prostate and the associated structures responsible for semen production being impeded. It is important to remember that the ability to orgasm is not dependent on either an erection or ejaculate.  Anecdotally speaking, many transgender females report greater satisfaction with their orgasms that occur with a flaccid penis.)

  • Suppressed or abolished spermatogenesis and fertility
  • Decreased semen production/ejaculate volume
  • Changes in mood, emotionality, and behavior
  • Decreased sex drive and incidence of spontaneous erections

Sexual changes (personally I like the idea of reduction of erections and decreased penis size)

Some transgender women report a significant reduction in libido, depending on the dosage of antiandrogens. A small number of post-operative transgender women take low doses of testosterone to boost their libido. Many pre-operative transgender women wait until after reassignment surgery to begin an active sex life. Raising the dosage of estrogen or adding a progestogen raises the libido of some transgender women.[citation needed]

Spontaneous and morning erections decrease significantly in frequency, although some patients who have had an orchiectomy still experience morning erections. Voluntary erections may or may not be possible, depending on the amount of hormones and/or antiandrogens being taken

Breast development (personally I would love to have breasts)

Breast development induced by hormone therapy in transgender women. [44]
Highly developed breasts of transgender woman induced by hormone therapy.

Breast, nipple, and areolar development varies considerably depending on genetics, body composition, age of HRT initiation, and many other factors. Development can take a couple years to nearly a decade for some. However, many transgender women report there is often a "stall" in breast growth during transition, or significant breast asymmetry. Transgender women on HRT often experience less breast development than cisgender women (especially if started after young adulthood). For this reason, many seek breast augmentation. Transgender patients opting for breast reduction are rare. Shoulder width and the size of the rib cage also play a role in the perceivable size of the breasts; both are usually larger in transgender women, causing the breasts to appear proportionally smaller. Thus, when a transgender woman opts to have breast augmentation, the implants used tend to be larger than those used by cisgender women.[45]

In clinical trials, cisgender women have used stem cells from fat to regrow their breasts after mastectomies. This could someday eliminate the need for implants for transgender women.[46]

In transgender women on HRT, as in cisgender women during puberty, breast ducts and Cooper's ligaments develop under the influence of estrogen. Progesterone causes the milk sacs (mammary alveoli) to develop, and with the right stimuli, a transgender woman may lactate. Additionally, HRT often makes the nipples more sensitive to stimulation

Trans women: Feminising medication (Oestrogen)

• Oestradiol-based formulations are naturally occurring oestrogen
• Oestradiol patches (best for those over 40, smokers or those with circulatory problems; least risk)
• Oestradiol gel (applied to skin; also low risk)
• Oestradiol/oestradiol valerate (taken in pill form; some risk)
• Conjugated equine oestrogen (from mares’ urine; taken in pill form; more risk. Some people regard the method of collection from horses as unethical)
• Ethinylestradiol (not recommended; taken in pill form; most risk of side effects)

What is the aim of hormone therapy for trans people?

The aim of hormone therapy is to make you feel more at ease with yourself, both physically and psychologically.
You may be experiencing discomfort because you are not happy with your male or female appearance; or maybe you are not comfortable in your gender role as a man or as a woman. Perhaps both these factors – your appearance and your gender role – are in conflict with your inner sense of being a man or a women (your gender identity).
You may have lived with this conflict for many years and be desperate to get some help.

If this is how you are feeling, hormone treatment (testosterone if you are a trans man, and oestrogen if you are a trans woman) may help to overcome your distress. This kind of treatment is sometimes referred to as ‘cross-sex’ hormone therapy.

In addition, to testosterone or oestrogen, hormone ‘blockers’ may be taken in the early stages of treatment to interrupt the hormone production of your own body, so that the prescribed hormones can be more effective.

Hormone therapy is usually the first treatment that trans people want to have and, for some, it may be the only treatment they need. Some people find that they get sufficient relief from taking hormones so that they do not need to change their gender role or have surgery.

Male to Female= Trans woman,     Female to Male=Trans man

Homoeroticism verse The concept differs from the concept of homosexuality: it refers specifically to the desire itself, which can be temporary, whereas "homosexuality" implies a more permanent state of identity or sexual orientation. It is a much older concept than the 19th century idea of homosexuality, and is depicted or manifested throughout the history of the visual arts and literature. It can also be found in performative forms; from theatre to the theatricality of uniformed movements (e.g., the Wandervogel and Gemeinschaft der Eigenen). According to Oxford English Dictionary, it's "pertaining to or characterized by a tendency for erotic emotions to be centered on a person of the same sex; or pertaining to a homo-erotic person."[3]

This is a relatively recent dichotomy[4] that has been studied in the earliest times of ancient poetry to modern drama by modern scholars. Thus, scholars have analyzed the historical context in many homoerotic representations such as classical mythology, Renaissance literature, paintings and vase-paintings of ancient Greece and Ancient Roman pottery.

Though homoeroticism can differ from the interpersonal homoerotic — as a set of artistic and performative traditions, in which such feelings can be embodied in culture and thus expressed into the wider society[4] — some authors have cited the influence of personal experiences in ancient authors such as Catullus, Tibullus and Propertius in their homoerotic poetry.[5]

My score:


Your COGIATI result value is:90Which means that you fall within the following category:

What this means is that the Combined Gender Identity And Transsexuality Inventory has classified your internal gender identity to be essentially androgynous, both male and female at the same time, or possibly neither. In some cultures in history, you would be considered to be a third sex, independent of the polarities of masculine or feminine. Your gender issues are intrinsic to your construction, and you will most likely find your happiness playing with expressing both genders as you feel like it.
Your situation is a little tricky in our current society, but not tremendously so, depending on your geographic location.
The suggestions for your circumstance are not overly complicated.
  1. If you have any comfortability about your gender expression, some slight degree of counseling might well prove helpful. The primary goal would be to make it possible for you to enjoy your gender expressions free from any shame or embarrassment, and to resolve any remaining questions you might have.
  2. As an androgynous being, both genders, and both sexes are natural to your expression. Permanent polarization in either direction might bring significant unhappiness. It is not recommended that you go through a complete transsexual transformation. You might find a partial transformation of value, if you find yourself more attracted overall to the feminine. You are more likely a transgenderist, than a transsexual. It is recommended that you recognize that your gender issues are real, but that extreme action regarding them should be viewed with great caution.
  3. If you have not already, consider joining any of the thousands of groups devoted to gender play of various varieties. There is literally a world of friends to discover who share your interests. There are also publications, vacations, and activities that would expand your gender play.

Transgenderist A transgenderist lives as the gender opposite their biological/anatomical sex, and may pursue various forms of hormonal and surgical intervention to adopt secondary sex characteristics of that gender, but does not seek gender reassignment surgery (vaginoplasty or phalloplasty - ).

Transgenderists: When Self-Identification Challenges Transgender Stereotypes
By Gianna E. Israel Copyright © 1996, all rights reserved.
 There has been an interesting development in the transgender community in recent years, specifically of persons who do not identify with the social and clinical definitions which apply to individuals with gender identity issues. Traditionally, those who comprise what is frequently referred to as the "transgender community" include transsexuals and crossdressers. In part, the definitions on who is a transsexual and who is a crossdresser are defined by social stereotypes and clinical literature; however they are also defined by those unique persons who have transgender experiences.

 A transsexual is a person who transitions and permanently lives as a member of the opposite gender. These persons seek out sex hormones and cosmetic surgery. This includes breast augmentation or mastectomy depending on the direction of change. In addition, transsexuals are interested in Genital Reassignment Surgery or what is also known as Sex Reassignment Surgery. It is common knowledge that there is a larger proportion of individuals who self-identify as transsexual, than the actual number of people who have genital reassignment. This in part is due to the high financial, emotional and social costs associated with living as a member of the opposite gender as well as the surgical procedure itself. There also exists a number of individuals who are unable to undergo Genital Reassignment. More information about those persons will be briefly addressed later in this article.
Crossdressers are persons who temporarily wear clothing of the opposite gender to fulfill an inner sense of need or reduce gender related anxiety. Typically crossdressing is done privately, although some persons do so publicly when circumstances appear safe. Some also crossdress for sexual fulfillment, such as in "transvestic fetishism." While crossdressers do not experience the many difficulties transsexuals face during the pursuit of transition or Genital Reassignment, they do experience emotional turbulence, social isolation, or concerns regarding privacy and whether to tell others about their secret. Like transsexuals, these factors are particularly evident when a crossdresser is unaware of transgender resources or is unable to resolve stereotype induced feelings of guilt, shame or fear. Both transsexuals and crossdressers are at risk of victimization by persons who cannot tolerate differences in others. Although, transsexuals face slightly higher risks because they are more visible than crossdressers who tend to be more hidden.

 Transgenderists are persons who consistently live as members of the opposite gender either on a part or full-time basis. Some maintain their original identity in the work place or during formal occasions. Others appear in their new identity during all aspects of daily life. Transgenderists are unique because maintaining both masculine and feminine characteristics is integral to having a sense of balance. However, the outward presentation of these characteristics varies subtly depending on the individual's needs and sense of connection to each gender. Like transsexuals, many are interested in obtaining electrolysis, hormones and even cosmetic surgery to bring their outward presentation in line with their inner sense of self. However, like crossdressers, transgenderists are not interested in Genital Reassignment Surgery.

 To elaborate on this distinction, even if a transgenderists lives "in role" as a member of the opposite gender on a full-time basis, what separates them from transsexuals, is that they derive pleasure from and value their genitals as originally developed. However, in most circumstances, it is unlikely that a transgenderist who lives in role full-time will disclose such private information without good reason. Because transgenderists are not interested in genital reassignment, they should not be confused with "non-operative" transsexuals or persons who are unable to have surgery due to financial or medical hardship. Although the majority of non-operative transsexuals live "in role" permanently, most need to adjust to a period of internalized incongruency during the time they are unable to have genital reassignment, if at all. Transgenderists do not go through this period of adjustment, because they are not interested in altering their genitals.

 Like transsexuals who are at the very beginning of transition, transgenderists frequently experience incongruent feelings regarding their gender identity. Unlike crossdressers these feelings persist "after the clothes come off" and the person dresses in their original gender. These incongruent feelings typically can be continuous, lasting for days and even weeks, until the individual recognizes a pattern in his or her needs. Transgenderists stop feeling incongruent when their needs are consistently met by maintaining characteristics from both genders.

 Understanding a transgenderist identity becomes particularly interesting when the subject of differentiating these from other transgender persons is looked at in further detail. Upon hearing about transgenderists, many people are inclined to believe that transgenderists are actually undecided about or simply unaware of genital reassignment. Others believe transgenderists are crossdressers, who somehow have managed to arrange unique living situations, so as to live out their fantasy. While the potential for such circumstances exists, a person usually self identifies as a transgenderist because their internal needs do not meet the narrow definitions associated with transsexuals or crossdressers.

 As we try understanding the process of differentiating one type of transgender person from another, it is important to recognize where transgender persons get their definitions and role models. In coming to terms with crossdressing or gender identity issues, most people consult clinical as well as community resources, so as to compare their experiences with others. Access to resources can vary immensely depending upon the individual's location, cultural background, social status, educational and investigative skills.

 For example, the standards which validates a person having a transgender identity vary greatly depending on location. In India, many transgender people have a choice between conforming to traditional gender stereotypes or becoming part of the Hijra caste. This is particularly so if they intend to live out their lives as members of the opposite gender. Within the caste, ritual castration without anesthesia is performed on new members by the caste. Also, hand plucking of facial and body hair is widely encouraged over shaving. Subsequently, while crossdressers and transgenderists may participate in Hijra activities to some extent, none are really considered a full member until they have suffered the pain of beautification and ritual castration.

 These practices can seem quite removed from the experiences of transgender persons living in the North America or Europe. These individuals find out about electrolysis, coping with crossdressing, or making a gender transition through relatively similar gender clinics or organizations. For the transgenderist, information addressing their needs has come forth slowly as clinicians began documenting gender identity issues only 20 years ago. In fact, the process of disseminating clinical information about gender issues is so slow, most people are not aware that transgender persons may have specialized medical needs. They may also not be aware that having a transgender identity is not in and of itself mentally disordered, medically diseased or pathological.

 Because the majority of clinical resources make no reference to transgenderists, it is important to recognize that differentiating this specialized sub-population is not much different than other transgender persons. Whereas most clinical resources use "consistency" in determining who is a crossdresser as well as who is a transsexual (and therefore an appropriate candidate for hormone administration and genital reassignment), this criterion is equally valuable in identifying transgenderists and their needs. Consistency is defined as person having consistent thoughts, actions, requests or demands for a set period of time. Professionals who utilize consistency as a factor for assessing crossdresser and transsexual treatment plans, may also do so for transgenderists. For example, within the Recommended Guidelines for Transgender Care, Dr. Donald Tarver and I recommend (in part) that "transgender individuals appropriate for hormone administration include those who have in the preceding three months consistently expressed interest in the permanent physical changes brought forward by hormones, in order to bring the body in line with an intended masculine, feminine or androgynous appearance."
On the surface the preceding recommendation may appear vague because it does not distinguish between transgender sub-populations. This lack of distinction, however, reflects an increasing trend among care providers to encourage transgender persons to adopt a gender-identification based on their needs and experiences, rather than force clients to conform to a provider or clinic's stereotypes. Encouraging self-determination has encouraged a relaxation of gender boundaries, which meets the needs of all transgender persons.

 Because there is not an overabundance of clinical literature portraying the specialized needs and issues transgenderists face, frequently these people cannot locate or are turned away from medical, surgical and psychological services. Those given incorrect information suffer needlessly and are often at risk. For example, those believing they are crossdressers and ineligible for professional services frequently end up self-prescribing, or seeking black market hormones and substandard cosmetic surgeries. Others, believing they are transsexuals, mistakenly proceed with a full-time transition or undergo Genital Reassignment Surgery. As a result these persons end up making huge sacrifices in order to validate themselves, and those who go through with genital reassignment may find themselves regretting having done so for the remainder of their lives. Recognition by professionals and the transgender community of transgenderist needs can help reduce these types of incidents.

 Frequently I receive requests for information from physicians who are uncertain about how to address hormone administration in transgenderists. Because hormone administration is a routine medical procedure, providing it to transgenderists is for the most part identical to that of pre-operative transsexuals. I always advise physicians to take into account the patient's general health, blood laboratory testing, prescription side effects and cosmetic predisposition. The only significant differences include the possibility that the transgenderist may ask that the prescription strength does not interfere with sexual performance, or that cosmetic growth be focused on moderate development or androgenization.

 One of the most exciting developments in understanding transgenderist issues, is the recognition that these their experiences can sharply differ in regard to pre-existing relationships such as marriages. Unlike transsexuals who are more likely to face divorce as a consequence of transition, and unlike closeted crossdressers who are the least likely to share "their secret" with a spouse, transgender issues become a significant dynamic within relationships. This is particularly true for those who live in role. In most circumstances the person's spouse or significant other is clearly supportive of the transgenderist's needs. Frequently many couples find that the relaxation of gender roles allows both persons to get their internal needs met, whereas they might not get through traditional role play.

 It may be assumed that the majority of transgenderist persons deny a desire to have Genital Reassignment Surgery in order to save a pre-existing marital relationship. In some circumstances that maybe the case. However, within my counseling practice only 1 out of every 4 transgenderists state that he or she would "possibly be interested" in genital reassignment if not involved in a pre-existing relationship. Frequently, this ambiguity diminishes the more accepted the person is by others, particularly when acceptance comes from their spouse.

 Other issues where transgenderists find difficulties include disclosure and isolation. Disclosing one's transgender status to others is a challenging prospect fraught with risks. However for the transgenderist, in addition to potential rejection from family and friends, they face the possibility of being turned away by professionals and rejected by the transgender community at large. This is particularly so when transgenderists encounter crossdressers who prefer keeping their behavior hidden, and subsequently feel uncomfortable being around someone who is so visible. Likewise, transsexuals may not be interested in socializing with a transgenderist for fear of having a desire or lack of desire in seeking Genital Reassignment Surgery invalidated.
Like other transgender persons who are hidden or who have not found resources, transgenderists tend to live very isolated, painful lives. This can be overcome by organizations and professionals encouraging differences in others, even when a person's gender identification challenges transgender stereotypes.

GENDER ARTICLES. This educational column authored by Gianna E. Israel is regularly featured on the 3rd Monday of each month in Tg-Forum, the Internet's most up-to-date, weekly Transgender Magazine <http://www.tgforum.com/>. Several weeks later each article is forwarded to Usenet and AOL <Keyword TCF>. Each column has been written to inspire contemplation and dialogue. Columns may be reprinted in any medium insofar as each article, its introduction, and the author's contact information remains unaltered.

GIANNA E. ISRAEL provides nationwide telephone consultation, individual & relationship counseling, evaluations and referrals. She is principal author of the Transgender Care (Temple University / in press 1997). She also writes Transgender Tapestry's "Ask Gianna" column; is an AEGIS board member and HBIGDA member.She can be contacted at (415) 558-8058, at P.O. Box 424447 San Francisco, CA 94142, or via e-mail at Gianna@counselsuite.com.
Copyright © 2001 by Diane Wilson. All rights reserved.


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INTRODUCTION One of the most important social identities that children learn to define themselves and others by is sex, becoming a salient social category by early childhood (Martin & Ruble, 2010; Aydt & Corsaro, 2003). Decades of research across cultures and species demonstrate the ubiquity of sex-segregated patterns of social interaction and behavior among children. Both human and primate youth exhibit preferences to play with same-sex peers and tend to hold attitudes favoring their sex ingroup over outgroup (Mahajan etal.,2011;Alexander&Hines, 2002;Powlishta, 1995; Serbin, Moller, Gulko, Powlishta, & Colburne, 1994; Martin,Wood,&Little,1990;LaFreniere,Strayer,&Gauthier, 1984).
Development of Sex Biases Early Childhood According to Developmental Intergroup Theory (Bigler & Liben, 2007), the external world (parents, teachers, etc.) socializes children to focus on sex differences from an early age. Children then tend to categorize their social worlds based on gender, often developing strong gender stereotypes that become rigid (Powlishta, 2004). Sex stereotyping begins to emerge between 2 and 4 years.  By ages 3 to 4 years, children report liking their own sex more than the other, think that their peers will also like their own sex better, and ascribe more positive characteristics to their own sex (Halim, Ruble, & Tamis-LeMonda, 2013; Yee & Brown, 1994). Furthermore, children tend to exaggerate similarities among their own sex and differences between the sexes (see Powlishta, 2004). Moreover, children exhibit a strong preference to play in same-sex groups, such that by age 6 years, the ratio of same-sex to opposite-sex play partners increases to 11:1 (Serbin et al., 1993; Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987). With increased sex stereotyping in childhood comes the belief that one’s own sex is better, and the oppositesex has cooties and should be avoided (Powlishta, 2004).Young boysand girls areoften waryof oneanother with children exaggerating male–female differences even when none exist, reaffirming the boundaries and asymmetries between girls and boys, a concept referred to as gender boundary maintenance(Martin & Ruble, 2004; Aydt & Corsaro, 2003; Sroufe, Bennett, Englund, Urban, & Shulman, 1993). For example, boys and girls often use “sexual scripts” to define strict gender boundaries, including teasing (e.g., being accused of liking the opposite sex) and heterosexual rituals (e.g., cross-sex chasing; Leaper, 1994). During these interactions, girls and boys often behave as if the other sex could contaminate them, a well-known childhood phenomenon called “cooties” (Leaper, 1994; Samuelson, 1980). The concept of cooties represents the salience of otherness ascribed to the opposite sex.

Middle Childhood Although early childhood represents a developmental stage during which sex differences are highly salient and the most rigid, this tends to wane by middle childhood when boys and girls show greater flexibility in their gendered behaviors and attitudes (Trautner et al., 2005; Martin&Ruble,2004; Serbinetal.,1993; Signorella,Bigler, &Liben,1993).Forinstance,rigidsex-stereotypingreaches a peak at around 6 years and then decreases with age (Trautner, 1992), and biases favoring same-sex relative to opposite-sex peers declines in elementary school (e.g., Egan & Perry, 2001). As children get older, they begin to understand that boys and girls have many similarities with each other and that there is substantial variability within each sex category. This greater flexibility may render sex a less salient social category by late childhood.

Adolescence Gender rigidity tends to intensify again during adolescence. Pubertal development is thought to revive youths’ concern with gender conformity (Huston & Alvarez, 1990; Hill & Lynch, 1983), perhaps because of physical maturation and the development of secondary sex characteristics and increased opposite-sex interactions. The gender intensification hypothesis posits that the physical changes of puberty are viewed as a signal that the adolescent is transitioning into adulthood and boys and girls experience an intensification of gender-related expectations, which increase their awareness of sex roles (Hill & Lynch, 1983). Moreover, preferential biases for samesex peers tend to decrease during adolescence when interest in other-sex peers develops (Sippola, Bukowski, & Noll, 1997; Serbin et al., 1993). Furthermore, puberty elicits secretion of androgenic hormones that are related to sexual arousal in both male and female adolescents (Morris, 1992), which may result in a greater orientation to opposite-sex peers. A shift in preference for oppositesex peers at the time of sexual maturity is also found in nonhuman primates (Sackett, 1970). Thus, sex becomes a salient social category again around the time of puberty.

Amygdala and Sex Biases Neuroimaging research has begun to uncover the neural correlates of intergroup attitudes and biases. Implicit affective attitudes are believed to involve subcortical neural structures such as the amygdala, a structure that develops early. The amygdala is involved in detecting salient and motivationally relevant cues in the environment (Cunningham & Brosch, 2012; Fitzgerald, Angstadt Jelsone, Nathan, & Phan, 2006) and is sensitive to social categories (e.g., racial categories; Hart et al., 2000; Phelps et al., 2000). Moreover, the amygdala codes for stimuli that are unusual and interesting (Hamann, Ely, Hoffman, & Kilts, 2002) as well as novel and unfamiliar (Balderston, Schultz, & Helmstetter, 2011). Developmentally, amygdala response to race emerges duringadolescence (Telzer, Humphreys, Shapiro, & Tottenham, 2013), a time when racial identity becomes salient (Roberts et al., 1999), suggesting that the amygdala codes for developmentally dependent and motivationally relevant social categories. Thus, the amygdala is a likely candidate to signal to the child the salience of otherness associated with the opposite sex, making it well positioned to detect and process “cooties” in the environment, a neurobiological signal that will facilitate an interest in and future learning about the opposite sex. Because sex is one of the most salient social categories in early childhood (Martin & Ruble, 2010), we hypothesized that young children would demonstrate heightened amygdala response to opposite-sex relative to same-sex faces. However, such differential amygdala response would decrease by late childhood, a time when cooties have typically dissipated. Furthermore, we hypothesized that amygdala sensitivity to sex would increase again around puberty, a time when differential sex roles become salient again because of sexual maturation.

Some Genders Differences I have had to look at,in regards to "How and Why,in what ways pyschologicially to I feel as a male,and ways I feel as a female

social opprobrium,  "Public disgrace"

Most transgender people are not non-binary. While some transgender people are non-binary, most transgender people have a gender identity that is either male or female, and should be treated like any other man or woman.

I personally wish to be seen as "Hermaphrodite" or she-male gender  thus neither male or female(both)

My ideal partner could be another she-male or "Hermaphrodite".if they sexual could take male role with myself. As I am 100% female sexually.

For men and women alike, sex hormones (including testosterone, produced by the testes, and estrogen, from the ovaries) are power players in myriad human abilities and behaviors. Language, cognition, libido, and health all fluctuate as hormone levels change. Yet the impact is nuanced and often counterintuitive. Testosterone revs aggression in status-hungry men, but has little effect in more laid-back souls. Estrogen has long been thought to keep memory sharp before menopause—but for women who start taking estrogen supplements years after going through menopause, the result may be memory problems instead. Finally, just as sex hormones influence behavior, changing situations often modulate the hormones. "The causal arrow between hormones and behavior points in both directions," says University of Nevada anthropologist Peter Gray. The subject is complex and often confusing. But given the common manipulation of sex hormones through prescription drugs and supplements, unraveling their hidden forces has never been more critical.

They used MRI scans on the brains of 18 trans men who had not started hormone treatment with 24 men and 19 women.

The results showed that trans men – those born biologically female but living as male – had white matter where it is usually found in male brains.

This is thought to be the first time that scientists have been able to show that trans men’s brains are masculinised.

In another study, they compared the brains of 18 trans women – born male but living as female – with 19 men and 19 women.

The trans women’s brains showed that the structure of the white matter was halfway between a typical male and a typical female brain.

Antonio Guillamon, who led the research, said: “Their brains are not completely masculinised and not completely feminised, but they still feel female.”

Androphilia and gynephilia are terms used in behavioral science to describe sexual orientation, as an alternative to a gender binary homosexual and heterosexual conceptualization. Androphilia describes sexual attraction to men or masculinity; gynephilia describes the sexual attraction to women or femininity.[1] Ambiphilia describes the combination of both androphilia and gynephilia in a given individual, or bisexuality.[2]

The terms are objectively used for identifying a person's object of attraction without attributing a sex assignment or gender identity to the person. This can avoid bias inherent in normative conceptualizations[weasel words] of human sexuality, avoid confusion and offense when describing people in non-western cultures, as well as when describing intersex and transgender people, especially those who are nonbinary or otherwise falling outside the gender binary.

Blanchard's transsexualism typology, also Blanchard autogynephilia theory and Blanchard's taxonomy, is a psychological typology of male-to-female (MtF) transsexualism created by Ray Blanchard through the 1980s and 1990s, building on the work of his colleague, Kurt Freund. Blanchard divided trans women into two different groups: "homosexual transsexuals", who Blanchard says seek sex reassignment surgery to romantically and sexually attract (ideally heterosexual) men, and "autogynephilic transsexuals" who purportedly are sexually aroused at the idea of having a female body. The typology suggests distinctions between MtF transsexuals, but does not speculate on the causes of transsexualism. This distinction is a recurring theme in scholarly literature on transsexualism.[1]

Supporters of the theory include sexual behavior scientists J. Michael Bailey, James Cantor, Alice Dreger, and some openly trans health care providers, Anne Lawrence and Maxine Peterson, and others who say that there are significant differences between the two proposed groups, including sexuality, age of transition, ethnicity, IQ, fetishism, and quality of adjustment. Under the theory, homosexual transsexuals are predicted to begin transitioning earlier in life,[2] generally before turning 30, which accounts for their supposedly better adjustment. They are also more likely to come from poorer, non-white or immigrant backgrounds,[3] have lower IQs,[4] as well as be by definition exclusively attracted to men. Autogynephilic transsexuals are either attracted to women, exclusively or not, or asexual.[2] They are also said under the theory to display more fetishistic or otherwise paraphilic arousal.[5]

Criticism of the research and theory has come from trans activists, including developmental biology researcher Julia Serano, Jaimie Veale, Larry Nuttbrock, and some physicians, including Charles Allen Moser and John Bancroft, and others who say that the theory is poorly representative of trans women.[6]

The theory has been the subject of controversy in the transgender community, which peaked with the publication of Bailey's The Man Who Would Be Queen in 2003.

Two From One: Evolution Of Genders From Hermaphroditic Ancestors Mapped Out

Research from the University of Pittsburgh published in the Nov. 20 edition of the journal Heredity could finally provide evidence of the first stages of the evolution of separate sexes, a theory that holds that males and females developed from hermaphroditic ancestors. These early stages are not completely understood because the majority of animal species developed into the arguably less titillating separate-sex state too long ago for scientists to observe the transition.

However, Tia-Lynn Ashman, a plant evolutionary ecologist in the Department of Biological Sciences in Pitt's School of Arts and Sciences, documented early separate-sex evolution in a wild strawberry species still transitioning from hermaphroditism. These findings also apply to animals (via the unified theory) and provide the first evidence in support of the theory that the establishment of separate sexes stemmed from a genetic mutation in hermaphroditic genes that led to male and female sex chromosomes. With the ability to breed but spared the inbred defects of hermaphrodites, the separate sexes flourished.

“This is an important test of the theory of the early stages of sex chromosome evolution and part of the process of understanding the way we are today,” Ashman said. She added that the study also shows that plants can lend insight into animal and human evolution. “We have the opportunity to observe the evolution of sex chromosomes in plants because that development is more recent. We wouldn't see this in animals because the sex chromosomes developed so long ago. Instead, we can study a species that is in that early stage now and apply it to animals based on the unified theory that animal and plant biology often overlaps.”

Ashman reported in the journal Science in 2004 that animals and flowering plants employ similar reproductive strategies to increase reproductive success and genetic diversity. These methods include large numbers of sperm cells in males, mate competition and attraction through fighting or natural ornamentation, aversion to inbreeding, and the male inclination to sire as many offspring as possible.

For the current study, Ashman and Pitt postdoctoral research associate Rachel Spigler worked with a wild strawberry species in which the evolution of separate sexes is not complete, so hermaphrodites exist among male and female plants. Sex chromosomes in these plants have two loci-or positions of genes on a chromosome-one that controls sterility and fertility in males and the other in females. Offspring that inherit both fertility versions are hemaphrodites capable of self-breeding. Plants that possess one fertility and one sterility version become either male or female. Those with both sterility versions are completely sterile, cannot reproduce, and, thus, die out.

The single-sex plants breed not only with one another but also with hermaphroditic plants and pass on the mutation, which can result in single-sex offspring. (Sterile plants also can result, but plants with genes that favor the production of fertile offspring will be more successful.) When inbreeding depression in hermaphrodites is also considered, Ashman said, a gradual decline in the number of hermaphroditic plants is to be expected. Consequently, fewer chromosomes with both fertility versions of the loci will be passed on and the frequency of single-sex individuals will increase.


Excerpt from "Top/bottom:

    Abstract :

Gaymen across a variety of countries label themselves by their preferences for insertive anal intercourse or receptive anal intercourse.A‘‘top’’is defined as someonewho prefers the insertive role,a‘‘bottom’’as someone who prefers the receptive role, and ‘‘versatile’’ as someone who has no preferences regarding anal sex role. Previous studies documented that tops showed a masculine profile and bottoms showed a feminine profile in gendered personality traits. In this study, we examined the association among sexual selflabel groups and empathizing–systemizing (E–S) cognitive styles among 509 gay men across multiple cities in China. There were significant differences in systemizing among sexual self-label groups,withtopsscoringhigheronsystemizing than bottoms and versatiles. Tops were more likely to have S[EandhighEandScognitivestylesthanbottoms.Bottoms were more likely to have E[S and low E and S cognitive styles than tops. There was a significant indirect effect of systemizingonsexualself-labelthroughSelf-MF.Therewas also a significant indirect effect of sexual self-label on systemizing through Self-MF.