The Hunter-Gathers- "our common need" 7/8/2018

My guess is Males and Females where very equal,in Hunter-gatherer societies.

   ♥ I think also,though few in ratio to population -Third-gender- males where apart of all hunter-gather groups,and essential aspect           for balance and harmony,peace keeping.helping protect females and children ,when other males where hunting. The hunting               males would not be jealous,as they would have known the Third-gender males only played a female role sexual with the males           themselves- They would have known the "Third-genders" (berdache,fa'afafine,etc) where "psychological feminine",and yet                   physically stronger then the females, they would have been well trusted,skilled in hunting.fire-making,wood gathering etc.

       ♥ I very much don't think a " berdache " would have been "shamed" in anyway,unless he some how "broke that trust ".


       ♥ I can relate to the role as a "Berdache/ Fa'afafine "  that is at a early age ,I was strong,athletic,Androgynous                         looking,by age 13 I was having sex with a male youth similar in age I was in the "Female role",he was mounting me and           ejaculating in my bottom routinely. I very much wanted to be in that role,yet society shamed that!,still does. and today            believe it is a big reason for my Alcohol Addiction, and by finally embracing the fact I am a "Berdache type",I released            the "cognitive dissonance" and "Gender dysphoria/ gender identity disorder" of that internal life long battle.

       ♥ The early peoples wouldn't have judged a sexual indenitiy as we do today, I am sure ,just as a Wolf pack,it was all about what             is best for the group,

Epidemiology of whom identify as transgender:

         Estimated rates of those with a transgender identity range from a lower bound of 1:2000 (or about 0.05%) in the Netherlands and Belgium[33] to 0.5% of Massachusetts adults.[34] From a national survey of high-school students in New Zealand, 8,500 randomly selected secondary school students from 91 randomly selected high schools found 1.2% of students responded "yes" to the question "Do you think you are transgender?".[35] These numbers are based on those who identify as transgender. It is estimated that about 0.005% to 0.014% of people assigned male at birth and 0.002% to 0.003% of people assigned female at birth would be diagnosed with gender dysphoria,[disputed discuss] based on 2013 diagnostic criteria, though this is considered a modest underestimate.[36] Research indicates people who transition in adulthood are up to three times more likely to be male assigned at birth, but that among people transitioning in childhood the sex ratio is close to 1:1

         My guess is there would have been more like 2 bertache/Fa'afafine per 100 or even more, in early humans,and like the                    Fa'afafine of Samoa ,men where even nutured at times to be Fa'afafine .


Role in Samoan society

Fa'afafine are known for their hard work and dedication to the family, in the Samoan tradition of tautua or service to family. Ideas of the family in Samoa and Polynesia are markedly different from Western constructions, and include all the members of a sa, or communal family within the fa'amatai family systems.[6]

Fa'afafine, as a third gender, have sexual relationships almost exclusively with men who do not identify as fa'afafine, and sometimes with women, but apparently not with other fa'afafine.[7] This third gender is so well-accepted in Samoan culture that most Samoans state that they have friendship relationships with at least one fa'afafine; it is, however, not totally accepted in other communities, such as some Catholic groups and traditional leaders. Traditionally, fa'afafine follow the training of the women's daily work in an Aiga (Samoan family group).[1][8] 

     Why is that,people can't accept people being different then themselves?..in a early hunter-gather tribe,you had        to,or die.you depended on that person or persons to live.

wolf and man a early kinship  7/8/2018

      - Wolf and Man: Evolution in Parallel is a collection of papers that discusses certain crucial attributes of humans including traits that are shared with other social predators. Some papers describe the wolf as the equal of man—the animal is a social hunter of large game, disregards human boundaries and properties, and consume livestock when it is necessary. The wolf's will to survive is as great as that of man, and brings along many resources to the competition. Several papers review the behavior and culture of man, wolf, dog, and the Chipewyan people who hunted caribou. Another paper examines the communication, cognitive mapping, and strategy in wolves and hominids. Hominids have developed cognitive maps, forced by their predation on large animals to cover wider ranges, to communicate and form complex sequences of utterances. One paper notes that the wolf was able to penetrate on every continent except Australia and Africa due to the Australian continent's isolation. In Africa, there is no ecological space for another highly organized social hunter of large game. The collection can be appreciated by anthropologists, sociologists, psychologists, and scientists involved in paleontology and human evolution.from book-Wolf and Man



The above site is very imformitive; "Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis & Clark and the Revealing of America"

      excerpts from; 

                               "When Thomas Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark into the West, he patterned their mission on the methods of Enlightenment science: to observe, collect, document, and classify. Such strategies were already in place for the epic voyages made by explorers like Cook and Vancouver. Like their contemporaries, Lewis and Clark were more than representatives of European rationalism. They also represented a rising American empire, one built on aggressive territorial expansion and commercial gain.

But there was another view of the West: that of the native inhabitants of the land. Their understandings of landscapes, peoples, and resources formed both a contrast and counterpoint to those of Jefferson's travelers. This part of the exhibition presents five areas where Lewis and Clark's ideas and values are compared with those of native people. Sometimes the similarities are striking; other times the differences stand as a reminder of future conflicts and misunderstandings." 


Discovering Diplomacy

"One of Lewis and Clark's missions was to open diplomatic relations between the United States and the Indian nations of the West. As Jefferson told Lewis, “it will now be proper you should inform those through whose country you will pass . . . that henceforth we become their fathers and friends.” When Euro-Americans and Indians met, they used ancient diplomatic protocols that included formal language, ceremonial gifts, and displays of military power. But behind these symbols and rituals there were often very different ways of understanding power and authority. Such differences sometimes made communication across the cultural divide difficult and open to confusion and misunderstanding.

An important organizing principle in Euro-American society was hierarchy. Both soldiers and civilians had complex gradations of rank to define who gave orders and who obeyed. While kinship was important in the Euro-American world, it was even more fundamental in tribal societies. Everyone's power and place depended on a complex network of real and symbolic relationships. When the two groups met—whether for trade or diplomacy—each tried to reshape the other in their own image. Lewis and Clark sought to impose their own notions of hierarchy on Indians by “making chiefs” with medals, printed certificates, and gifts. Native people tried to impose the obligations of kinship on the visitors by means of adoption ceremonies, shared names, and ritual gifts."