The purpose of anthropology is to make the world safe for human differences.-Ruth Benedict
I personally as a very young child was exposed to seeing my mother having sex with my step-father at age 7, not by by intent , by fact that their bedroom was next to mine, with a door way directly into theirs, and to get to bathroom, the shortest way was to go through my room, my step father often would not close the door to my room, thus often as they where having sex, their sounds would awake me. By simple
I loved my mother very much,she was my role model in essence yet greatly despised my step-father all my life.
Some how I think this influenced, my being " Transsexual oriented "
As by age 13, I wanted to be another male's " girly-boyfriend ", and actually did begin having sex in ;
The Female role , and felt it to be very right.
|Navajo Nation (Native American)||U.S.||Recognizes the "two-spirit," the Nadle, who can be either a female-male or male-female, and are held in high esteem within the tribe as healers. (More than 155 Native American societies have been documented as having two-spirits).|
The Chukchi, Koryak, and Kamchadal peoples
|Siberia||Recognize a third gender which fulfills the role of androgynous shamans (animistic priests), who are able to marry men.|
Blackfoot Nation (Native American)
Recognizes the "manly-hearted woman" as a third gender.
Lakota, Ktunaxa & Sioux nations (Native American)
Recognize the two-spirit gender as a man who lives as a female.
|Mohave Nation (Native American)||U.S.||Recognizes four genders: men, women, hwame (male-identified females) and alyha (female-identified males).|
|Zuni Nation (Native American)|
|Recognizes the lhamana as a two-spirit third gender, typically a man who dressed and lived as a female, performing female duties, and were esteemed as priests, artists, and negotiators.|
|Zapotec Nation (Native American)|
|Recognizes the moxhe (men who dress as and carry out the duties of women) as a third gender.|
Inca civilization (Native American)
|Regarded their third genders as negotiators between the masculine and the feminine, past and present, living and dead. They were esteemed as shamans.|
Kanaka Maoli people (Pacific Islander)
|Recognize a third gender who shares feminine and masculine qualities. Often they were respected educators and preservers of tradition and ritual. Many Hawaiian societies also recognized the aikane, masculine gay or bisexual men, making traditional Hawaiian societies quite unique in that regard. Bisexual behavior was actually quite common throughout Polynesia before contact with Europeans.|
Samoan (Pacific Islander)
|Recognize the fa'afafine, biological males who dress and live as women, as a third gender. They often assume roles as family caretakers and Sunday school teachers, and are accepted and respected.|
|Tongan & Tahitian (Pacific Islander)||Polynesia|
The fakaleiti and mah'u are the Tongan and Tahitian versions, respectively, of the fa'afafine third gender. They are no longer as respected in Tonga and Tahiti, however, as they are in Samoa, because Protestant fundamentalism has taken root much more deeply in the former.
Maori (Pacific Islander)
|The wakawahine and wakatane are recognized as the third gender among the Maori of New Zealand. They are males who live as females (the former) and females who live as males (the latter). Intimate companions of the same sex are known as takatapui.|
Butaritari people (Pacific Islander)
Recognize the binabinaaine (female-gendered men who dress, act, and live as women) and the binabinamane (male-gendered women who dress, act, and live as men) as a third gender. They are not viewed as immoral or disordered, and they can marry and adopt children.
|Bugis tribe (Southeast Asian)|
|Recognizes three sexes (men, women, intersex) and five genders (male, female, calalai, calabai, bissu). Calabai are biological males who embody a feminine gender identity. Calalai are biological females who embody a male gender identity. Bissu are considered a "transcendent gender," either encompassing all genders or none at all. The latter serve holy roles and are equated with priests.|
Indonesian (Southeast Asian)
|The waria are biological males who take on a female appearance, and are generally recognized as a third gender. Very similar to the bakla of the Philippines and the kathoey of Thailand.|
|Thai (Southeast Asian)||Thailand||Kathoeys are biological males who are commonly said to have the heart of a woman, practically synonymous with the Filipino bakla. They are sometimes referred to as sago or sao prapet song: a second type of woman. Thai tradition holds that a kathoey is neither male nor female, but inhabits the space between genders.|
|Burmese (Southeast Asian)|
|The acault are men who assume the dress and social roles of women. They often serve as spirit mediums in the indigenous animistic traditions, and are viewed as neither men nor women, similar to kathoeys in neighboring Thailand. A man can have sex with an acault without violating the cultural prohibition on homosexual behavior.|
Nepalese (South Asian)
Meti are men who assume feminine dress and roles. They do not view themselves as gay by Western standards, but as a true male-female hybrid third gender who are attracted to straight men.
India & Pakistan
|Like the meti of Nepal, India's hijra and Pakistan's khusra do not consider themselves to be men or women, but a distinct third gender. They have a recorded history in the region that stretches back over 4,000 years. In Hindu mythology they represent the half-man half-woman image of the god Shiva, but have long been discriminated, misunderstood, and marginalized in society.|
Omani (Middle Eastern)
|Recognize the xanith as a third gender. They are men who dress as women and relate as women, but do not necessarily emasculate themselves.|
Iranian (Modern Persian)
|Iran||In Iran homosexuality is illegal and punishable by death, but transsexuality is permitted. Transgender men are permitted to live lives as straight women and permitted to undergo sex reassignment surgery, after which their official documents are changed to reflect their new identities.|
|The mino of Benin were masculine women who didn't want to marry men, and who often dressed as men and took part in hunting and fighting. They were considered a third gender, but today have been suppressed.|
The shamans of the Bangala people were recognized as third gender males who dressed as women. After the coming of the European colonizers and missionaries, however, this practice was stamped out
|The ashtime of Ethiopia were most often eunuchs, or any non-gender-conforming male. Protestant missionaries from the early to mid-1900s painted them as unnatural and disordered, and essentially stamped them out. Today there are still ashtime, but the term has become a blanket term for any type of sexual non-conformity, and they are an oppressed minority.|
|Kenya & Tanzania|
The mashoga are males who adopt the female gender early in life, and often switch between wearing men's clothes and women's.
|Saami||Arctic areas of northern Europe|
Recognize a double-sexed third gender, the gadniha, who traditionally performed certain religious ceremonies and rites.
I very much tried not to be a " Female roled male,
tried not to want to be another male's " girly-boyfriend ",
tried not to desire to have a vagina like a female, yet didn't work!,
My only "Role " that feels right is the Third-gender role, in which I am 100% in female role,
with a very strong urge to be " bred by a male ",sexually please a male.
I would say I can identify best with ; Lhamana(wikipedia)
" Lhamana, in traditional Zuni culture, are male-bodied people who take on the social and ceremonial roles usually performed by women in their culture. They wear a mixture of women's and men's clothing and much of their work is in the areas usually occupied by Zuni women. They are also known to serve as mediators. Some contemporary lhamana participate in the pan-Indian two-spirit community."
I like the video above, in that I can imagine waiting for my man or men to return from hunt
I do believe in the "Berdache Ways", there where likely to be ones whom selected only one partner,those whom played a role more like myself,that stayed single and where available to a certain group of the tribe.for example traveled on a hunting party; thus available for the men(sexually),tend to wounds and could cook and hunt as well.
In my research, the Evidence clearly shows the "Third Gender type as always existed as a part of Nature, in small percent yet,always there. My guess as form of peace keeping,birth control,sexual outlet, defense.and evolved naturally. due to fact common in every part of world./ without prior contact.
For myself due to the Fact,I was quite comfortable modeling nude in front of a group of Artists/people, it came easy to develop into being in a setting that involved " a group of males,( I consented to )to submit to as a male in the "female role" .I very much came to desire this setting if could, yet in a very much ,selected group.Where another berdache would not be comfortable in this setting.
We must remember "Berdache" was what the French where calling the "Native American"
Among the Zunis, the death of a berdache like We'wha elicited "universal regret and distress." But from the Spanish and Anglo-Americans who overran the Southwest, berdaches often evoked dismay, disgust, anger, or, at the least, ridicule. Berdaches were anomalies -- freaks of nature, demons, deviants, perverts, sinners, corrupters. They committed the "nefarious vice, " the "abominable sin." Over the centuries, Europeans have resorted to a bewildering variety of terms to describe them -- in Spanish, soméjticos (sodomites), amarionadas (from Mary, meaning "effeminate), mujerados (literally "made women"), putos (male prostitutes), and bardajes (from "bardaj," Persian and Arabic for "slave" or "kept boy"), and in English, "hermaphrodites," "sodomites," "men-women," "inverts," "homosexuals," "transvestites," and "transsexuals." - Will Roscoe
There is an old joke that the typical Zuni household consists of a mother, father, children, and an anthropologist. In fact, the Zunis are one of the most written-about tribes in the world. . . . It was with genuine disappointment, then, that I came to realize how often the impact of these outsiders on the objects of their fascination has been disruptive and detrimental. Despite their admiration of the Pueblos, early anthropologists more often bolstered the image of the vanishing Indian than challenged it. . . .
Early observers were convinced that the cause of science and the immenent disappearance of tribal cultures justified their actions. . . . Such predictions enact what James Clifford has termed the redemptive allegory of anthropology -- the assumption that the "primitive" cultures are doomed to disappear except for those artifacts "rescued" by Western scientists. Such predictions are not only self-serving -- since they inflate the importance of the fieldworkers's reports -- they can also be self-fulfilling. They sustain and foster the idea of Indians as a vanishing race by referring only to their past.
The alternative view, however, challenges many comfortable assumptions: that there are neither primitive nor civilized, inferior nor superior, simple nor advanced societies -- only different ones. This view requires learning to think in "plurals" -- imagining the multiple histories and cultural stories of human societies in every part of the world as parallel, equal developments intersecting without necessarily merging, and associating non-Western societies such as Zuni with the future of the planet instead of its past. We must question the assumption that change means the loss of something essential and find ways to discuss cultural differences without encasing them in value-ladened descriptions.
----------------------I think, so many forget we are as much a part of our Past as we are a part of our Present--------------------------me-------
A large proportion of Native American tribes acknowledged a gender role that did not conform to Euro-American notions of male and female. This gender role, generically referred to as berdache
I do know, when one of my men met me at the door,and I was dressed like this,our "roles where known", call it script,or what you will, yet he was Man,I was Lady
George Catlin was a painter from Pennsylvania, USA. His works focused on Native American life and culture as he was interested in capturing North America’s “vanishing race” and spent weeks sketching and painting among indigenous folks to capture their “untouched” lifestyles. His most prolific expedition was with William Clark up the Mississippi River Territories of the United States started in 1830. While he documented tribes he visited, he was hostile toward non-european customs and wrote anti-two spirit sentiments toward the Sac and Fox village he visited.
Can you guess why Catlin was hostile toward the "berdache"?, do think Catlin was a well developed person psychologically?
excerpt from "Days Without End ";Chiefs and warriors kept winkte as sexual partners alongside their other wives, and they were sometimes believed to have special spiritual powers.- very much a role I played with many
But the colonizers reactions toward Two-Spirit people can be summed up by the words of Antonio de la Calancha, a Spanish official in Lima. Calancha wrote that during Vasco Nuñez de Balboa´s expedition across Panama, Balboa “saw men dressed like women; Balboa learnt that they were sodomites and threw the king and forty others to be eaten by his dogs, a fine action of an honorable and Catholic Spaniard.”
This was not an isolated attack. When the Spaniards invaded the Antilles and Louisiana, “they found men dressed as women who were respected by their societies. Thinking they were hermaphrodites, or homosexuals, they slew them.”…I learned that the colonizers´ efforts to outlaw, punish, and slaughter the Two-Spirits within those nations had also met with fierce resistance. Conquistador Nuño de Guzman recorded in 1530 that the last person taken prisoner after a battle, who had “fought most courageously, was a man in the habit of a woman…”
Chrystos,a brilliant Two-Spirit poet and writer from the Menominee nation, offered me this understanding: “Life among First Nation people, before first contact, is hard to reconstruct. There´s been so much abuse of traditional life by the Christian Church. But certain things have filtered down to us. Most of the nations that I know of traditionally have more than two genders. It varies from tribe to tribe. The concept of Two-Spiritedhness is a rather rough translation into English of that idea…The whole concept of gender is more fluid in traditional life…People may choose their gender according to their dreams, for example. So even the idea that your gender is something you dream about is not even a concept in Western culture – which posits you are born a certain biological sex and therefore there´s a role you must step into and follow pretty rigidly for the rest of your life. That´s how we got the concept of queer…The gender fluidity is part of a larger concept, which I guess the most accurate English word for is “tolerance”. It is a whole different way of conceiving how to be in a world with other people.”Chrystos told me about her Navajo friend Wesley Thomas, who describes himself as nadleeh-like. A male nadleeh, she said, “would manifest in the world as a female and take a husband and participate in tribal life as a female person.” I emailed Wesley….for more information about the nadleeh tradition. He wrote back that “nadleeh was a category for women who were/are masculine and also feminine males.” The concept of Nadleeh…is incorporated into Navajo origin or creation stories…”part of the normal Navajo culture, from the Navajo point of view, through the nineteenth century. It began changing during the first half of the twentieth century due to the introduction of Western education, and most of all, Christianity. Nadleeh since they has moved underground.”- Transgender Warriors – Making History from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman.
Why understanding the "Berdache Way" can be so important for Society in general ,as a Whole
♥ One thing I can think of rather quickly, it can humble us all, by realizing that other cultures we thought savage,at early contact,say like the "Zuni culture", as Albert Einstein commented ...a highly developed culture,in regard to Realizing,and Nuturing the diversity of Humanity.
Somewhere in a group of islands in the South Pacific, a class of men who display effeminate behaviours and portray atypical masculine roles forms an integral part of traditional culture and greater social structure. They are the fa’afafine of the Independent State of Samoa, the American Samoa, and in several Samoan diaspora including New Zealand.
An etymological understanding of the causative prefix fa’a and the word fafine provides a direct English translation that means “in the manner of a woman.” Nonetheless, the terminology or label ascribed to these men is revealing of their recognised status as a third gender. Their acknowledged status in the society comes from their established and important role in the traditional Samoan family systems.
Scholars who have studied the Samoan culture describe the fa’afafine as hard working and dedicated members of the family. In their study, Nancy H. Bartlett and Paul L. Vasey mentioned that these individuals display an array of behaviours that range from extravagantly feminine to mundane masculine. Their sexual orientation resembles typical homosexuals as evident from their exclusive sexual relationships with men.
However, it is important to delineate the difference between the fa’afafine and the Western concept of homosexuals. In Samoa, the words “gay” or “homosexual” are inexistent. Oppressive cultures in other parts of the world consider homosexuality as unnatural and people who have identified themselves as homosexuals are often perceived with contempt and discrimination. But the Samoan culture is different. Instead, the fa’afafine is a true third gender with an established identity and role that first emerged at least during the early 20th century. Researchers often replace the word homosexuality with the word androphilia to describe a universal homosexual-like sexual orientation and behaviours.
I thought important,one knows these terms;
Androphilia and gynephilia are terms used in behavioral science to describe sexual orientation, as an alternative to a gender binary homosexual and heterosexual conceptualization. Androphilia describes sexual attraction to men or masculinity; gynephilia describes the sexual attraction to women or femininity. Ambiphilia describes the combination of both androphilia and gynephilia in a given individual, or bisexuality.
The terms are objectively used for identifying a person's object of attraction without attributing a sex assignment or gender identity to the person. This can avoid bias inherent in normative conceptualizations of human sexuality, avoid confusion and offense when describing people in non-western cultures, as well as when describing intersex and transgender people, especially those who are nonbinary or otherwise falling outside the gender binary.
As a child, Lind asked others to call her by Jennie instead of Earl, and she spent much more time with girls than with boys. She became very shy and introverted when her parents sent her off to an all boys school and also became very depressed, considering suicide. Lind realized at a young age that she was an androgyne looking to change from male to female. At the time, the term transgender was not prevalent; instead words such as "androgyne", "invert" and "fairie" were used. She struggled throughout her life up to her late twenties with her extreme desire to perform fellatio, claiming to have partaken in over sixteen hundred sexual encounters in the span of a dozen years.
Her goal in writing her book was to make her trials well-known and to rally the support of Americans to create an accepting environment for young adults who do not adhere to gender and sexual norms because that was what she would have wanted for herself, and she wanted to prevent them from committing suicide June discusses her desires, which she struggled with because they were so different to what was considered normal. -Wikipedia
Though confusing, even to myself , for example if I take say the The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) test, every time I take it, or different version of it, I always score very high as psychologically feminine, not so called Androgyny.
------------------------------Why the same sex marriage issue represents how civilized we really are-------------------
♥ For myself, it represents one more step out of " Plato's Cave "
excerpt from above site ; Sex, gender, and the two-spirit
" If you are biologically male does that mean that you are a man? And if your biological sex is female does that make you a woman? Most people would unhesitatingly answer yes to both questions. But are they right to do so? Perhaps the key question is this: does an individual’s (biological) sex determine that individual’s gender?
Trying to answer that question inevitably leads into hotly-contested scientific, political and social debates—a lot rides on how we view the relationship between sex and gender. Gender essentialists (or determinists) maintain that fundamental differences between the biological sexes are responsible for the gender differences between men and woman: women are wired to like pink, are more nurturing, more passive, less spatially aware, etc.; men are wired to prefer blue, are less emotionally aware, more aggressive, better at reading maps, etc. Whether the different wiring between men and women is biological or evolutionary is less significant than the broader point essentialists make: men and women are different in ways that simply cannot be got around. And from that potentially follows arguments as to why women are better suited for, say, caring professions or parenthood, while men make, say, more natural engineers or leaders. Although not an inevitable consequence of gender essentialism, the theory has proved convenient to those who wish to justify ‘traditional’ gender roles and, in some cases, gender inequality.
Social constructionists, on the other hand, argue that gender is socially and culturally constructed rather than biologically determined. The overwhelming majority of gender differences, in this view, have nothing to do with biology and a lot to do with social and cultural influences: upbringing, family, social conventions, media, and so on. Are women biologically wired for parenthood in ways that men are not? No, answer constructionists: if we give baby dolls as presents to girls and toy cars as presents to boys, if advertising, films and television tend to present women as homemakers and men in roles of action out in the world, then men and women are being socially and culturally conditioned to assume certain roles which are then mistakenly thought to be natural."
If we are able to open our minds to those who choose to live beyond traditional gender roles - just as we have accepted women expanding their traditional roles - perhaps we will be able to accept that gender is a socially-made construct - something alterable and impermeable - that has discriminated against others who would otherwise make meaningful contributions to society if not for the fear and hatred. The Native Americans were able to provide "two-spirits" with a place in their world that did not instill fear and hatred, but rather a society that accepted them and recognized their invaluable contributions both as humans and as part of the societies in which they lived.- - owlcation.com
I like this video, in that it conjures up a " imagination " of being a part of a tribal society, where I am accepted as a "berdache ". In this scene ,I am awaiting on one of the young males of the tribe whom have no available female to be with sexually, so until the time a female becomes available, he can come to me for sexually pleasure, and at same time in-directly learning that penetrating my " bottom " sexually, he would learn, I had the desire like a female.yet couldn't become pregnant ,a important thing in many ways for hunter gatherer group, thus a means of natural birth control, thus in-directly shielding the females whom where,taken,to young,etc. Not to hard to see,if one can free their mind to try, how a " berdache " was formed;
by Nature's Design.
How many transgender people are there in the entire world? It is estimated that between 1% and 2% of the population is transgender. So let’s put the number of transgender people at 1.5 % on a population of 500,000,000 people.
Or it could of been 1 in every 50-100 , say in North America in the year 1700, as the early explorers wrote;
I've read of the " berdache " being called " sacred whores ", thus fits the life style I was in between 1998-2005
Would still be, if things where different Societally,
If the " berdache ways ", where accepted,
thus could be refined, for the role
The simply fact that " berdache " type people like myself ;
" Men whom innately seem to desire to take the role of a female ",
Historically have always existed,over most of the Earth'
The below Article is a Alternative as Well!
Yes, you read that right. In the northern Colombian town of Cartagena, adolescent boys are having regular sex with donkeys. This tradition is widely known and accepted in parts of Colombia as a rite of passage for many boys to become men. Fathers will often take their young boys out to teach them how to have intercourse with the farm animals. Once these young men get a taste of intercourse with donkeys it appears hard to give up. Many cases have been reported of married men repeatedly cheating on their wives with donkeys well into adulthood. The practice itself is believed by colombians to benefit the boys a great deal by giving them a means to practice having sex and better prepare them to please their future wives. As Colombia is an extremely catholic nation, pre or extramarital sex is extremely frowned upon. So using Donkey’s is just a surprising loophole for horny youth. They also believe that having sex with donkeys will make their penises bigger as well as prevent them from becoming homosexual. - askmen.com
Now We Got Porn !, yet it's simply imagining, not Real !
I think it is easy to forget, there are many young men, as well as adult men with no Available Mate
I believe it is Important to Realize;
" by Nature's Design,the the basic aspect of being Alive is to keep the Human Species Alive "
" The Need to Breed "
yet can be orderly maintained
As a " berdache "
(my case Female Roled-male, thus transgender,even wanta be transsexual in degrees)
(Spanish term bardaxa/bardaje (person engaging in sodomy) and then the French term bardache (a boy kept by a pederast).
I have as long as I can remember
my only want, has been
to be in the Female role
and a big part of that is being "bred" like a female
Though on same Token, I don' have need ,desire to pass as female
Only strong desire to define my self as " Female Roled sexually "
And very much Available to be in that "Role ", yet like most females,
Only males whom can meet my standards, you might say !
I never just let any guy " bone me " !
To be in this " berdache " role
I truly believe, one had to have been instilled by Nature,
With this strong and life long mating type desire,
And in the in the Context in which it take place in my mind.
One very defining way it is " My Duty "
This has always been a driving force,,to mate with a man,not a women,
Yet in a Psychologically pleasurable way, I have no real desire to reach orgasm.
Only please them, (I seldom would ejaculate,didn't want to)
which by not ejaculating, as most males know,
There isn't that Refractory period of "loss of interest"
Thus, I was as long as I was clean,lubed,
I could be "boned" for a long time.
In some cases by quite a few men in same setting,
For myself, and at least since 1998, when I routinely,
started getting " boned " by men,
the most defining urge was, getting them to ejaculate up inside my bottom,
Knowing their semen was in me was the greatest pleasure of All.
Thus part of being able to be "impregnated " by a man is,
keeping one's bottom clean,and thus ready to be boned
Which I still do daily,routinely,just like showering ,shaving etc.
speaking of which , I don't think to be a " berdache " type,
at least in Feminine fashion I am, you'd ever have a beard,
look masculine, least a to me a defining difference between many gay males,
And my homosexual aspect of being a female roled male,
I am not looking down on traditional role of gay males, just pointing out;
there is a huge difference in our -Roles-
Thus if I had lived in Ancient Greece, or with a North American indigenous tribe, I would of been accepted hopefully;
as a " berdache " or female roled male, sacred whore,transgender etc.
I know for myself ,I was Born to Bottom, as I have never Topped, and have never desired to, simply can't, against my belief !, the following a great article
“We were recognizing same-sex unions between a man and a man and a woman and a woman long before white people came on to this land,” Alray Nelson, lead organizer at the Coalition for Navajo Equality, a local community group working to end the ban on gay marriage, told Fusion.
The ancient Greeks;
did not conceive of sexual orientation as a social identifier the way Western societies have done for the past century. Greek society did not distinguish sexual desire or behavior by the gender of the participants, but rather by the role that each participant played in the sex act, that of the active penetrator or the passive penetrated.
This active/passive polarization corresponded with dominant and submissive social roles: the active (penetrative) role was associated with masculinity, higher social status, and adulthood, while the passive role was associated with femininity, lower social status, and youth.
The most common form of same-sex relationships between males in Greece was "paiderastia" meaning "boy love." It was a relationship between an older male and an adolescent youth. A boy was considered a "boy" until he was able to grow a full beard. In Athens, the older man was called erastes, and he was to educate, protect, love, and provide a role model for his eromenos, whose reward for him lay in his beauty, youth, and promise.
To love a boy below the age of twelve was considered inappropriate, but no evidence exists of any legal penalties attached to this sort of practice.
I never done this,thankfully have not had to, yet it's going on; ↓
The reason why straight men are having sex with other men, according to a sexologist;
"The majority of straight men who are going to a glory hole are going because they don’t want to see who is on the other side. It is about just getting off." - indy100.com
In all reality , modern society is moving backward, and in many ways other then the " be human sexually topic, as if moving backwards in one way,good chance many other ways, and only the Individual can change ; Their
" Thinking "..remember a crowd doesn't think
Lastly, gay people aren't really "born that way" in the sense of having same-sex attractions from the moment of birth. Sexual orientation cements around puberty, and according to Gerulf Rieger, a sexual orientation researcher at Cornell University, "it is quite possible that there are several influences on forming a homosexual orientation." Genes do appear to contribute, but so do other factors, including a fetus' level of exposure to certain sex hormones in the womb, and possibly early life experiences. [Why Are There Gay Men?]
The influence of genes can't be altered, but what about the other factors? "More information is needed to determine if preferences and limits that were established prenatally or during critical developmental periods can be extinguished or changed," Utah-based sexual orientation therapist Lee Beckstead wrote in a February review paper in the Archives of Sexual Behavior.
excerpt from ↑ ;
It doesn’t help that with histories written by victors, many of the lives we might recognize ourselves in become obliterated from memory. Such is the case with most things transgender or homosexual, which at one time were seen to be rooted in similar human need. It was once said that there were three facets to our existence: survival, reproduction, and everything else — and to the person who made the case, “everything else” — which tended to encompass those things creative, imaginative and ingenious — could be classified as “art.” If ancient cultures bore understanding of this, then one wonders if transgender and same-sex love were seen as an art of their own… a creative exploration of love and affection.
- Berdache Ways - (anthropological perspective)
♥ In a sense, Native American cultures have institutionalized and socially sanctioned homosexual relations by utilizing the berdache role as the preferred same sex partner. When men want to have male/male sex, they are encouraged to do so with a berdache (95).
♥ The usual sexual behavior of the berdache is to take the passive role in anal intercourse. At times they may indulge in oral sex or take the active role in anal intercourse, but this is not widely talked about. If a berdache wishes to take an active role, it is usually done only in secret and with a partner who can be trusted not to talk. This is also true of the feelings of the man involved with a berdache. If he wishes to assume the passive role, he will try to keep the activity secret.
♥ Another distinctive aspect of berdache sex is that during foreplay and actual intercourse they generally do not like to have their genitals touched. "…. Intercourse with an alyha is surrounded by an etiquette to which the partner had better conform; or else the man could get in all sorts of trouble. Kuwal, a Mohave man who had several alyha as wives, said "they insisted on having their penis referred to as cunnus (clitoris) (97)." "…. I never dared touch the penis in erection except during intercourse. You’d court death otherwise, because they would get violent if you play with their erect penis too much (98)."
♥ Berdaches frequently are available for sex with both unmarried adolescent boys and married men who occasionally seek out same sex partners. Because of this, female prostitution is not needed. Traditional berdaches were also available as sexual partners during hunts and in war parties (102). This was yet another reason why they were welcomed on these excursions.
Theory of Gender Continuum