MichaelEmeryArt

                      Essense of being Human

excerpt from researchworks.com  ;

  

Human Rights and Responsibilities - Caring for Self, Others, and the Environment

As the main thesis of this paper implies, the positive side and strengths of human beings weigh more than the other extreme. Laland et al. (2000) identified kin selection and reciprocity as the main reasons for human cooperation. The first one involves family members or significant others, while the latter only caters to a small group of people not more than 10. The authors noted that the larger the group size, the less reciprocal exchanges are bound to emerge. However, they recognized that there could be other factors that affect such cooperation (131).

In spite of less reciprocity though, human beings have succeeded in building institutions, countries, and global and local economies, among others. They are also able to forge alliances and partnerships resulting in organizations like the United Nations (UN). The UN requires its member-states to conform with its standards that are designed to create humane and just living conditions for all people.

The first six human rights cited in the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 include: (1) the right to be born free and equal in dignity and rights; (2) entitlement of rights and freedoms for everyone sans any distinction; (3) the right to life, liberty and security of person; (4) prohibition of slavery and slave trade; (5) protection from torture, cruelty, inhuman, and degrading treatment; and (6) the right to recognition as a person.

Being Human: A Celebration

Undeniably, the journey of towards survival had been tough for human ancestors. Yet, the same challenge holds true for the modern times. Advances in technology have made it possible for human beings to sow greater violence and to aspire for expanded power and more wealth. Some say it is human nature to be greedy and cruel. But, history also shows that people are capable of being kind and compassionate, able to promote change without bloodshed.

Imagine your part of a group of Advaned beings from a far away place in the Universe, your studying Earth, and it's beings,as they study " The Human ",  a question that they contemplate is ; 


                                                     " What are they Capable of ? "

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     1.Arousalthe physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception. It involves activation of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) in the brain, which mediates wakefulness, the autonomic nervous system, and the endocrine system, leading to increased heart rate and blood pressure and a condition of sensory alertness, mobility, and readiness to respond. 


Arousal is important in regulating consciousness, attention, and information processing. It is crucial for motivating certain behaviors, such as mobility, the pursuit of nutrition, the fight-or-flight response and sexual activity (see Masters and Johnson's human sexual response cycle, where it is known as the arousal phase). Arousal is also an essential element in many influential theories of emotion, such as the James-Lange theory of emotion or the Circumplex Model. According to Hans Eysenck, differences in baseline arousal level lead people to be either extraverts or introverts. Later research suggests that extroverts and introverts likely have different arousability. Their baseline arousal level is the same, but the response to stimulation is different.[5]

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       2. Cooperation

Humans cooperate for the same reasons as other animals: immediate benefit, genetic relatedness, and reciprocity, but also for particularly human reasons, such as honesty signaling (indirect reciprocity), cultural group selection, and for reasons having to do with cultural evolution.[1]

Language allows humans to cooperate on a very large scale. Certain studies have suggested that fairness affects human cooperation; individuals are willing to punish at their own cost (altruistic punishment) if they believe that they are being treated unfairly.[3][4] Sanfey, et al. conducted an experiment where 19 individuals were scanned using MRI while playing an ultimatum game in the role of the responder.[4] They received offers from other human partners and from a computer partner. Responders refused unfair offers from human partners at a significantly higher rate than those from a computer partner. The experiment also suggested that altruistic punishment is associated with negative emotions that are generated in unfair situations by the anterior insula of the brain.[4]


"Human cooperation is an evolutionary puzzle. Unlike other creatures, people frequently cooperate with genetically unrelated strangers, often in large groups, with people they will never meet again, and when reputation gains are small or absent. These patterns ofcooperation cannotbeexplained by the nepotisticmotivesassociated with the evolutionary theory ofkinselectionand the sel®sh motives associated with signalling theory or the theory of reciprocal altruism. Here we show experimentally that the altruisticpunishmentof defectors isakeymotivefortheexplanationofcooperation. Altruisticpunishment meansthat individuals punish, although the punishment is costly for them and yields no material gain. We show that cooperation ¯fourishes if altruistic punishment is possible,and breaks down if it is ruled out.The evidence indicates that negative emotions towards defectors are the proximate mechanism behind altruistic punishment.These results suggest that future study of the evolution of human cooperation should include a strong focus on explaining altruistic punishment ".- Altruistic punishment in humans / wayback machine

Third-party punishment, or altruistic punishment, is punishment of a transgressor (first party) which is administered, not by a victim of the transgression (second party), but rather by a third party not directly affected by the transgression.[1] It has been argued that third-party punishments are the essence of social norms, as they are evolutionary stable unlike second-party punishments.[2] It has also been shown that third-party punishments are exhibited in all examined populations, though the magnitude of the punishments varies greatly, and that costly punishment co-varies with altruistic behavior.[3][4][5] Differences between within-group and inter-group altruistic punishments have also been observed.[6]


Current evolutionary models state that human altruism evolved through the selective (cultural or biological) extinction of groups in inter-group conflicts.[11][12][13] However, there is also evidence for altruism and norms between groups.[6] Some models suggest that third party punishment of "free-riders" (those who do not cooperate) leads to increased group cooperation due to individual selection for cooperative traits.[14]

excerpt from 


Human societies represent a huge anomaly in the animal world1. They are based on a detailed division of labour and cooperation between genetically unrelated individuals in large groups. This is obviously true for modern societies with their large organizations and nation states, but it also holds for hunter-gatherers, who typically have dense networks of exchange relations and practise sophisticated forms of food-sharing, cooperative hunting, and collective warfare2, 3. In contrast, most animal species exhibit little division of labour and cooperation is limited to small groups. Even in other primate societies, cooperation is orders of magnitude less developed than it is among humans, despite our close, common ancestry. Exceptions are social insects such as ants and bees, or the naked mole rat; however, their cooperation is based on a substantial amount of genetic relatedness. 


Why are humans so unusual among animals in this respect? We propose that quantitatively, and probably even qualitatively, unique patterns of human altruism provide the answer to this question. Human altruism goes far beyond that which has been observed in the animal world. Among animals, fitness-reducing acts that confer fitness benefits on other individuals are largely restricted to kin groups; despite several decades of research, evidence for reciprocal altruism in pair-wise repeated encounters4, 5 remains scarce6-8. Likewise, there is little evidence so far that individual reputation building affects cooperation in animals, which contrasts strongly with what we find in humans. If we randomly pick two human strangers from a modern society and give them the chance to engage in repeated anonymous exchanges in a laboratory experiment, there is a high probability that reciprocally altruistic behaviour will emerge spontaneously9, 10.
However, human altruism  extends far beyond reciprocal altruism and reputation-based cooperation, taking the form of strong reciprocity11, 12. Strong reciprocity is a
combination of altruistic rewarding, which is a predisposition to reward others for cooperative, norm-abiding behaviours, and altruistic punishment, which is a propensity to impose sanctions on others for norm violations. Strong reciprocators bear the cost of rewarding or punishing even if they gain no individual economic benefit whatsoever from their acts. In contrast, reciprocal altruists, as they have been defined in the biological literature4, 5, reward and punish only if this is in their long-term self-interest. Strong reciprocity thus constitutes a powerful incentive for cooperation even in nonrepeated interactions and when reputation gains are absent, because strong reciprocators will reward those who cooperate and punish those who defect.

                                        This video shows how leaders can take being Human to a meaning-less State

                                        How religion can be used as a Tool for great manipulation

   My thought is that by "Natures Design " all humans are very social creatures, have the Ability for free thinking, How ever when ;

                                                                    Any Religion is introduced into " Thought ",

                                                                              "Free Thought is Lost "

            

                                                                      Setting the Stage for Manipulation

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                                                                                      Spiritual ;

               I invite anyone to ask themselves " Whom or what do I really deeply love ?",

                                                                       Hopefully you can name a Few,


                                         For example ; I deeply love my dog " George ", extremely important to me,he' s non-human.


                                                        Yet no Other Human being can or does Love George as I do.


                                                              Thus Spiritual ,to me can mean " Something So uniquely Individual ",


                                                                             Thus Spiritual is Only Individual

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                          So that bring us to Question what is " Religion " ?

                                One doesn't have to think to hard to see " How powerful Religions are ",


                                               Thus what part of " essense of being human "

                           

                                                                                    Do religions play ?,


                            My "Religion" is simply Nature, so I can see fairly

                                    open-minded,un-bias at all other religions

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                                             Why does One have a Need for religion ?

                                                                 ( This is the Real Question , as a Human being ,Why ?)

                                                                   Let us Compare Religion to Sex,

                                    "both" are some what non-rational, to a degree or metaphysical.


                                                                      Take away the physical pleasure aspect of sex,


                                                                                Both have One Common Trait

                                                                                                      ↓

                                "Bonding"

                                                                                  And very,very powerful at that!

  Both can Show all the Symptoms of Addictions

                                      I invite you to watch following video, and see what think on the " Bonding " idea

                                               I thought I was Addicted to having sex with men in my "Berdache role"(fem-male),


                                                Sure I was having sex with as many men as I could find that I felt right for me,


                                                                  Yet until I realized I wasn't having sex for physical pleasure,


                                                     When I realized ; " my main objective was getting them to ejaculate in me "


                                                          " The ultimate way of Bonding "

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IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN CONNECTION AND BONDING IN RECOVERY- As humans we have the natural need for bonding connection because we are an innately a social species. Social connections are a powerful component in our lives as they play a vital role in our survival in our sense of belonging.- residencexii.org