As early as the 19th century, Western thinkers spanning psychologists, philosophers, even mystics held Attention as an, if not the, essential quality to be cultivated (Buddha beat them by a few years). William James, who coined the term ‘stream of consciousness’, writes:
…the faculty of voluntarily bringing back a wandering attention over and over again is the very root of judgment, character, and will…And education which should improve this faculty would be the education par excellence.”
French philosopher Simone Weil echoes:
"Although people seem to be unaware of it today, the development of the faculty of attention forms the real object and almost the sole interest of studies.”
Attention...great attention is my way to spirit....con·tem·pla·tion(the action of looking thoughtfully at something for a long time:)
I also see Attention as " Empathtic thought "....
Only the individual can think, and thereby create new values for society, nay, even set up new moral standards to which the life of the community conforms. ... The ideals which have lighted my way, and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully, have been Kindness, Beauty and Truth. (Albert Einstein, 1954)
Attention... Attention restoration theory (ART)..asserts that people can concentrate better after spending time in nature, or even looking at scenes of nature. Natural environments abound with "soft fascinations" which a person can reflect upon in "effortless attention", such as clouds moving across the sky, leaves rustling in a breeze or water bubbling over rocks in a stream. The theory was developed by Rachel and Stephen Kaplan in the 1980s in their book The experience of nature: A psychological perspective, and has since been found by others to hold true in medical outcomes as well as intellectual task attention, as described below. Berman et al. discuss the foundation of the attention restoration theory (ART). "ART is based on past research showing the separation of attention into two components: involuntary attention, where attention is captured by inherently intriguing or important stimuli, and voluntary or directed attention, where attention is directed by cognitive-control processes." 
I believe our expectations of ourselves and others..should be carefully contemplated...self-awareness,and awareness of others,(empathy)-(objectivism) are critical
"Strive to Let go of all Pre-Concieved Notions and see as a Child again"...ME
15 characteristics of a self-actualized person.(Maslow)
Characteristics of self-actualizers:
1. They perceive reality efficiently and can tolerate uncertainty;
2. Accept themselves and others for what they are;
3. Spontaneous in thought and action;
4. Problem-centered (not self-centered);
5. Unusual sense of humor;
6. Able to look at life objectively;
7. Highly creative;
8. Resistant to enculturation, but not purposely unconventional;
9. Concerned for the welfare of humanity;
10. Capable of deep appreciation of basic life-experience;
11. Establish deep satisfying interpersonal relationships with a few people;
12. Peak experiences;
13. Need for privacy;
14. Democratic attitudes;
15. Strong moral/ethical standards.
Behavior leading to self-actualization:
(a) Experiencing life like a child, with full absorption and concentration;(open-minded)
(b) Trying new things instead of sticking to safe paths;
(c) Listening to your own feelings in evaluating experiences instead of the voice of tradition, authority or the majority;
(d) Avoiding pretense ('game playing') and being honest;
(e) Being prepared to be unpopular if your views do not coincide with those of the majority;
(f) Taking responsibility and working hard;
(g) Trying to identify your defenses and having the courage to give them up.(be humble)
The characteristics of self-actualizers and the behaviors leading to self-actualization are shown in the list above. Although people achieve self-actualization in their own unique way, they tend to share certain characteristics.
To be able to adapt to a changing World we must be open-minded in order to embrace-"Enculturation" is the process by which people learn the requirements of their surrounding culture and acquire values and behaviours appropriate or necessary in that culture. As part of this process, the influences that limit, direct, or shape the individual (whether deliberately or not) include parents, other adults, and peers. If successful, enculturation results in competence in the language, values, and rituals of the culture.
Enculturation is related to socialization. In some academic fields, socialization refers to the deliberate shaping of the individual. In others, the word may cover both deliberate and informal enculturation.
Conrad Phillip Kottak (in Window on Humanity) writes:
Enculturation is the process where the culture that is currently established teaches an individual the accepted norms and values of the culture or society where the individual lives. The individual can become an accepted member and fulfill the needed functions and roles of the group. Most importantly the individual knows and establishes a context of boundaries and accepted behavior that dictates what is acceptable and not acceptable within the framework of that society. It teaches the individual their role within society as well as what is accepted behavior within that society and lifestyle.
Enculturation is sometimes referred to as acculturation, a word recently used to more distinctively refer only to exchanges of cultural features with foreign cultures. Note that this is a recent development, as acculturation in some literatures has the same meaning as enculturation.
I had to be Open-Minded to even become a Artist's Model..and a bit thick-skinned!,,,as I have been made fun of by many( I had to learn to be humble),,something that makes me sad about this Society we live in,,..and even sadder is the open-minded-ness of Life Drawing Classes...example: in 20 years of modeling, not one person,,has asked me a simply question like.."whats it like" or not even how much does it pay"...maybe that is it,,,I feel Like a Minority, cause I am one!....dumb-ass me!....
I can not stress enough...the importance of humanity becoming open-minded..(without open-minded-ness..the ability to create is greatly hindered)
myself posing nude
I think any type of creative endeavor...enables us to become in tune with our great ability for "Attention".(Awareness)
.....even as a artist model,..posing requires extreme meditation..(to hold a pose for a hour..one is forced into meditation..or fails their duty as a model)..personally for myself,after art class(posing)..I most often experienced a great sence of Awareness.
"A key to wisdom is knowing all the right Questions"- John A.Simone Jr.
I spent 2 years in alcohol addiction recovery a Salvation Army's Detroit, Mi. "ARC" addiction recovery center in order to overcome this terrible affiction,,I learned many things,one being ,and this very important to understand for everyone reading this"...Everyone has a Ego,nearly everyone is a addict in some degree and form(it's a human condition)..A..The Ego seeks instant gratification( Left brain thinking)..instant gratification is a terrible addiction in itself...in order to overcome our addiction in the "ARC" , one the discipline's taught over and over was" Delayed gratification"
B. Another concept stressed was "Doing the same thing over and over in the same way and expecting different results is "a form of insanity"
C. Addiction is a form of being immature in some way.
D. Being out of balanced Cognitively viewing reality,not as it truthly is..."we are all guilty at times of this,,thru culture dogmas,beliefs and pre-conceived notions.
E. Manys view(trained mental health professionals and everyday open-minded,educated individuals)..agree that most individuals in our modern society could greatly benefit by going through a program such as the Detroit, MI. ARC addiction recovery program,by mere fact of it help us learn how to be Human in ways never taught by society.....isn't it funny,here it is 2018 and we don't have a class in our schools simply called,.."Being Human"
"The study of Art,...is the Study of being Human"
"I never saw a wild thing sorry for itself. A small bird will drop frozen dead from a bough without ever having felt sorry for itself". D. H. Lawrence......if one has ever seen the movie G.I Jane with Demi Moore..and paid attention,,this Quote,,you will know
Orthographic projection (sometimes orthogonal projection), is a means of representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions. It is a form of parallel projection, in which all the projection lines are orthogonal to the projection plane, resulting in every plane of the scene appearing in affine transformation on the viewing surface. The obverse of an orthographic projection is an oblique projection, which is a parallel projection in which the projection lines are not orthogonal to the projection plane.
The term orthographic is sometimes reserved specifically for depictions of objects where the principal axes or planes of the object are also parallel with the projection plane, but these are better known as multiview projections. Further, when the principal planes or axes of an object in an orthographic projection are not parallel with the projection plane, but are rather tilted to reveal multiple sides of the object, the projection is called an axonometric projection. Sub-types of multiview projection include plans, elevations and sections. Sub-types of axonometric projection include isometric, dimetric and trimetric projections.
A lens providing an orthographic projection is known as an object-space telecentric lens.
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In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object. For example, in the two-dimensional case, the normal line to a curve at a given point is the line perpendicular to the tangent line to the curve at the point.
In the three-dimensional case a surface normal, or simply normal, to a surface at a point P is a vector that is perpendicular to the tangent plane to that surface at P. The word "normal" is also used as an adjective: a line normal to a plane, the normal component of a force, the normal vector, etc. The concept of normality generalizes to orthogonality.
The concept has been generalized to differentiable manifolds of arbitrary dimension embedded in a Euclidean space. The normal vector space or normal space of a manifold at a point P is the set of the vectors which are orthogonal to the tangent space at P. In the case of differential curves, the curvature vector is a normal vector of special interest.
The normal is often used in computer graphics to determine a surface's orientation toward a light source for flat shading, or the orientation of each of the corners (vertices) to mimic a curved surface with Phong shading.
As with all types of parallel projection, objects drawn with axonometric projection do not appear larger or smaller as they lie closer to or farther away from the viewer. While advantageous for architectural drawings, where measurements must be taken directly from the image, the result is a perceived distortion, since unlike perspective projection, this is not how human vision or photography normally works. It also can easily result in situations where depth and altitude are difficult to gauge, as is shown in the illustration to the right.
This visual ambiguity has been exploited in op art, as well as "impossible object" drawings. Though not strictly axonometric, M. C. Escher's Waterfall (1961) is a well-known image, in which a channel of water seems to travel unaided along a downward path, only to then paradoxically fall once again as it returns to its source. The water thus appears to disobey the law of conservation of energy.
The Penrose stairs or Penrose steps, also dubbed the impossible staircase, is an impossible object created by Lionel Penrose and his son Roger Penrose. A variation on the Penrose triangle, it is a two-dimensional depiction of a staircase in which the stairs make four 90-degree turns as they ascend or descend yet form a continuous loop, so that a person could climb them forever and never get any higher. This is clearly impossible in three dimensions.
The "continuous staircase" was first presented in an article that the Penroses wrote in 1959, based on the so-called "triangle of Penrose" published by Roger Penrose in the British Journal of Psychology in 1958. M.C. Escher then discovered the Penrose stairs in the following year and made his now famous lithograph Klimmen en dalen (Ascending and Descending) in March 1960. Penrose and Escher were informed of each other's work that same year. Escher developed the theme further in his print Waterval (Waterfall), which appeared in 1961.
In their original article the Penroses noted that "each part of the structure is acceptable as representing a flight of steps but the connexions are such that the picture, as a whole, is inconsistent: the steps continually descend in a clockwise direction."
|Metzinger in 2011|
|Born||12 March 1958 (age 60)|
Thomas Metzinger (born 12 March 1958) is a German philosopher and professor of theoretical philosophy at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz. As of 2011, he is an Adjunct Fellow at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies and on the advisory board of the Giordano Bruno Foundation. From 2008 to 2009 he served as a Fellow at the Berlin Institute for Advanced Study; from 2014 to 2019 he is a Fellow at the Gutenberg Research College.