Learning equals Observation and Behavior change

I do believe the Key essense to being Good at anything is being a "Great Observer",thus taking the Time, paying Attention,creating Empathy,other wise we are simply getting sweep along by the "Stream"

One Observation all of Us have to Face,is in my view 99% of everyone is a "Addict" to "Pre-Concieved Notions",the first step to overcoming any addiction is realizing it,then beginning to change one's behavior,and changing behavior is all about,having the "Desire" to,after admitting that there is a need to "Change",then with hard work,change will come.

Suspension of judgment is critical to learn,embody in order to mature,and learn.

Epoché (ἐποχή epokhē, "suspension"[1]) is an ancient Greek term which, in its philosophical usage, describes the state where all judgments about non-evident matters are suspended in order to induce a state of ataraxia (freedom from worry and anxiety). This concept was developed by the Pyrrhonist school of philosophy, and was also employed in Academic Skepticism.

Epoché plays an implicit role in subsequent skeptical thought, as in René Descartes' epistemic principle of methodic doubt. The term was popularized in philosophy by Edmund Husserl. Husserl elaborates the notion of 'phenomenological epoché' or 'bracketing' in Ideas I. Through the systematic procedure of 'phenomenological reduction', one is thought to be able to suspend judgment regarding the general or naive philosophical belief in the existence of the external world, and thus examine phenomena as they are originally given to consciousness.[2]

The Ten Tropes of Aenesidemus

The reasons for epoché are given in what are often called the ten tropes or ten modes, which Sextus Empiricus attributed to Aenesidemus. These are as follows:

  1. Different animals manifest different modes of perception;
  2. Similar differences are seen among individual men;
  3. For the same man, information perceived with the senses is self-contradictory
  4. Furthermore, it varies from time to time with physical changes
  5. In addition, this data differs according to local relations
  6. Objects are known only indirectly through the medium of air, moisture, etc.
  7. These objects are in a condition of perpetual change in colour, temperature, size and motion
  8. All perceptions are relative and interact one upon another
  9. Our impressions become less critical through repetition and custom
  10. All men are brought up with different beliefs, under different laws and social conditions

The Five Tropes

These tropes or "modes" are given by Sextus Empiricus in his Outlines of Pyrrhonism. According to Sextus, they are attributed only "to the more recent skeptics" and it is by Diogenes Laertius that we attribute them to Agrippa.[2] The tropes are:

  1. Dissent – The uncertainty demonstrated by the differences of opinions among philosophers and people in general.
  2. Progress ad infinitum – All proof rests on matters themselves in need of proof, and so on to infinity.
  3. Relation – All things are changed as their relations become changed, or, as we look upon them from different points of view.
  4. Assumption – The truth asserted is based on an unsupported assumption.
  5. Circularity – The truth asserted involves a circularity of proofs

Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs. Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief, which include the ideas of justification, warrant, rationality, and probability. Loosely speaking, justification is the reason that someone (properly) holds a belief.

When a claim is in doubt, justification can be used to support the claim and reduce or remove the doubt. Justification can use empiricism (the evidence of the senses), authoritative testimony (the appeal to criteria and authority), or reason.

A Priori and A Posteriori

The terms "a priori" and "a posteriori" are used primarily to denote the foundations upon which a proposition is known. A given proposition is knowable a priori if it can be known independent of any experience other than the experience of learning the language in which the proposition is expressed, whereas a proposition that is knowable a posteriori is known on the basis of experience. For example, the proposition that all bachelors are unmarried is a priori, and the proposition that it is raining outside now is a posteriori.

It is very important to realize how Culturally and socially,we are programed by our world,environment: (school,family,all individuals we are in contact with as we grow,how they project their idea's,beliefs on to our being),thus we become "Pre-Concieved"

Behavior change is our most difficult under taking,as in reality it is just as overcoming " any Addiction"

I came across this book( The Artist's Way ) 3 years ago while in Alcohol rehab,and applied it to my Life as far as studying / learning.

In all reality it is based on a simple concept that, "At the end of the Day,after working all day,fatigued ,our minds are not receptive to Learning,thus we must rest(get to sleep) get up in morning,and start studying while fresh,un-hindered by the world of events,all the crazy news(don't watch news etc.).I begin by doodling.journeling,or just studying/researching.

As I recommend with all Leo's videos,download Mp3,version,listen to them,when able to truly pay attention to them

Can a Behavior be an Addiction?

People become addicted to substances. People who abuse substances become addicted to such things as heroin, cocaine, crack, alcohol and others. The reason this happens is that the drug brings about changes in the brain that cause a physical addiction. As a result, it becomes extremely painful to stop using the drug. When users attempt to stop using on their own and without medical help, they experience serious withdrawal symptoms. Therefore, can a person become addicted to a behavior? After all, we speak of addiction to such behaviors as gambling, the Internet, and video games. This a controversial issue.

There is a lot of concern about children and their use of the Internet, so much so that parents and educators worry that kids are not learning to socialize.

Many parents are starting to enroll their children in classes for social skills because they believe Internet and video game addictions (screen additions) cause them to lack the communication and social skills necessary to function in school. Kimberly O’Brien, a child psychologist with Quirky Kid Clinic, says parents are concerned about the amount of time their kids are spending on the computer, electronic games and TV.

O’Brien says children’s social skills need more work today due to the amount of screen time they spend on their Wii, PSP, X-Box and on the Internet, to name a few. Thankfully, children are so easily adaptable they can be weaned off of such electronics, according to an article on the Daily Telegraph. O’Brien says their clinic has a program for communication and social skills that teaches children how to interact with others by joining groups and learning such basic skills as taking turns.

However, are these children truly addicted as with chemical addictions? Certainly, the constant and repeated use of the Internet has a quality about it that is compulsive. The pattern of behaviors associated with these compulsions is very similar to that which addicts follow. It begins with the individual experiencing pleasure associated with a behavior. For instance, someone surfs the Internet to escape the reality of life and feels momentarily better for doing so. Because of the initial pleasure, he may seek out that behavior again and again. This pattern of using the Internet and feeling pleasure can become frequent just as drinking is for someone abusing alcohol.

Just as with chemical addictions, there can be withdrawal symptoms connected with putting an end to a behavioral addiction. An experiment was done in which those identified as addicted to the Internet had their usage interrupted after 15 minutes. When given post tests, it was revealed that the subjects experienced increases in anxiety and depression. The researchers caution that it is too soon to draw any conclusions and more research is needed. It seems to this writer that this is pretty good evidence that there is such a things as behavioral addiction. what is your opinion and do you have a child who is addicted to the Internet and games?-

Allan Schwartz, Ph.D.

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Realizing,..We as Humans,to varying degrees are forced by Nature to want and have sex!

-we are all "Addicts"

In What Do Women Want? Adventures in the Science of Female Desire, critically acclaimed journalist Daniel Bergne disseminates the latest scientific research and paints an unprecedented portrait of female lust: the triggers, the fantasies, the mind-body connection (and disconnection), the reasons behind the loss of libido, and, most revelatory, that this loss is not inevitable. Bergner asks: Are women actually the less monogamous gender? Do women really crave intimacy and emotional connection? Are women more disposed to sex with strangers and multiple pairings than either science or society have ever let on? And is "the fairer sex" actually more sexually aggressive and anarchic than men? While debunking the myths popularized by evolutionary psychology, Bergner also looks at the future of female sexuality. Pharmaceutical companies are pouring billions of dollars to develop a "Viagra" for women. But will it ever be released? Or are we not yet ready for a world in which women can become aroused at the simple popping of a pill? Insightful and illuminating, What Do Women Want? is a deeper exploration of Daniel Bergner's provocative New York Times Magazine cover story; it will spark dynamic debates and discussions for years to come.-     

Platonic love (often lower-cased as platonic[1]) is a term used for a type of love that is non-sexual. It is named after Plato, though the philosopher never used the term himself.

Platonic love is examined in Plato's dialogue, the Symposium, which has as its topic the subject of love or Eros generally. It explains the possibilities of how the feeling of love began and how it has evolved—both sexually and non-sexually. Of particular importance is the speech of Socrates, who attributes to the prophetess Diotima an idea of platonic love as a means of ascent to contemplation of the divine. For Diotima, and for Plato generally, the most correct use of love of human beings is to direct one's mind to love of divinity.

In short, with genuine platonic love, the beautiful or lovely other person inspires the mind and the soul and directs one's attention to spiritual things. Pausanias, in Plato's "Symposium" (181b-182a), explained two types of love or Eros—Vulgar Eros or earthly love and Divine Eros or divine love. Vulgar Eros is nothing but mere material attraction towards a beautiful body for physical pleasure and reproduction. Divine Eros begins the journey from physical attraction i.e. attraction towards beautiful form or body but transcends gradually to love for Supreme Beauty. This concept of Divine Eros is later transformed into the term Platonic love.

In Middle Ages arose a new interest in Plato, his philosophy and his view of love. This was caused by Georgios Gemistos Plethon during the Councils of Ferrara and Firenze in 1438-1439. Later in 1469 Marsilio Ficino put forward a theory of neo-platonic love in which he defines love as a personal ability of an individual which guides their soul towards cosmic processes and lofty spiritual goals and heavenly ideas. (De Amore, Les Belles Lettres, 2012.) The first use of the modern sense of Platonic love is taken as an invention of Ficino in one of his letters.

A good part of Humanity can't get over Vulgar Eros,because they don't know they are stuck in it,,Like any Addict,first they must know they are a Addict!

The Four Loves is a book by C. S. Lewis which explores the nature of love from a Christian and philosophical perspective through thought experiments.[1] The book was based on a set of radio talks from 1958, criticised in the US at the time for their frankness about sex.[2]

Need/gift love

Taking his start from St. John's words "God is Love", Lewis initially thought to contrast "Need-love" (such as the love of a child for its mother) and "Gift-love" (epitomized by God's love for humanity), to the disparagement of the former.[3] However he swiftly happened on the insight that the natures of even these basic categorizations of love are more complicated than they at first seemed: a child's need for parental comfort is a necessity, not a selfish indulgence, while conversely parental Gift-love in excessive form can be a perversion of its own.[4]


Lewis continued his examination by exploring the nature of pleasure, distinguishing Need-pleasures (such as water for the thirsty) from Pleasures of Appreciation, such as the love of nature.[5] From the latter, he developed what he called "a third element in love...Appreciative love",[6] to go along with Need-love and Gift-love.

Throughout the rest of the book, Lewis would go on to counterpart that three-fold, qualitative distinction against the four broad types of loves indicated in his title.[7]

In his remaining four chapters, Lewis treats of love under four categories ("the highest does not stand without the lowest"), based in part on the four Greek words for love: affection, friendship, eros, and charity. Lewis states that just as Lucifer (a former archangel) perverted himself by pride and fell into depravity, so too can love—commonly held to be the arch-emotion—become corrupt by presuming itself to be what it is not.

A fictional treatment of these loves is the main theme of Lewis's novel Till We Have Faces.

Storge—empathy bond

Storge (storgē, Greek: στοργή) is liking someone through the fondness of familiarity, family members or people who relate in familiar ways that have otherwise found themselves bonded by chance. An example is the natural love and affection of a parent for their child. It is described as the most natural, emotive, and widely diffused of loves: natural in that it is present without coercion; emotive because it is the result of fondness due to familiarity; and most widely diffused because it pays the least attention to those characteristics deemed "valuable" or worthy of love and, as a result, is able to transcend most discriminating factors. Lewis describes it as a dependency-based love which risks extinction if the needs cease to be met.

Affection, for Lewis, included both Need-love and Gift-love. He considered it responsible for 9/10th of all solid and lasting human happiness.[8]

Ironically, however, affection's strength is also what makes it vulnerable. Affection has the appearance of being "built-in" or "ready made", says Lewis, and as a result people come to expect it irrespective of their behavior and its natural consequences.[9] Both in its Need and its Gift form, affection then is liable to "go bad", and to be corrupted by such forces as jealousy, ambivalence and smothering.[10]

Philia—friend bond

Philia (philía, Greek: φιλία) is the love between friends as close as siblings in strength and duration. The friendship is the strong bond existing between people who share common values, interests or activities.[11] Lewis immediately differentiates friendship love from the other loves. He describes friendship as "the least biological, organic, instinctive, gregarious and necessary...the least natural of loves".[12] Our species does not need friendship in order to reproduce, but to the classical and medieval worlds it is a higher-level love because it is freely chosen.

Lewis explains that true friendships, like the friendship between David and Jonathan in the Bible, are almost a lost art. He expresses a strong distaste for the way modern society ignores friendship. He notes that he cannot remember any poem that celebrated true friendship like that between David and Jonathan, Orestes and Pylades, Roland and Oliver, Amis and Amiles. Lewis goes on to say, "to the Ancients, Friendship seemed the happiest and most fully human of all loves; the crown of life and the school of virtue. The modern world, in comparison, ignores it".

Growing out of companionship, friendship for Lewis was a deeply appreciative love, though one which he felt few people in modern society could value at its worth, because so few actually experienced true friendship.[13]

Nevertheless, Lewis was not blind to the dangers of friendships, such as its potential for cliquiness, anti-authoritarianism and pride.[14]

Eros—erotic bond

Eros (erōs, Greek: ἔρως) for Lewis was love in the sense of "being in love" or "loving" someone, as opposed to the raw sexuality of what he called Venus: the illustration Lewis used was the distinction between "wanting a woman" and wanting one particular woman—something that matched his (classical) view of man as a rational animal, a composite both of reasoning angel and instinctual alley-cat.[15]

Eros turns the need-pleasure of Venus into the most appreciative of all pleasures;[16] but nevertheless Lewis warned against the modern tendency for Eros to become a god to people who fully submit themselves to it, a justification for selfishness, even a phallic religion.[17]

After exploring sexual activity and its spiritual significance in both a pagan and a Christian sense, he notes how Eros (or being in love) is in itself an indifferent, neutral force: how "Eros in all his splendor...may urge to evil as well as good".[18] While accepting that Eros can be an extremely profound experience, he does not overlook the dark way in which it could lead even to the point of suicide pacts or murder, as well as to furious refusals to part, "mercilessly chaining together two mutual tormentors, each raw all over with the poison of hate-in-love".[19]