Any body that knows me fairly well knows ,that I have despised, Mass production in almost any form.
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Here is a Article I just came across at the "Economist":
Based on the principles of specialisation and division of labour as first described by Adam Smith
Mass production is a way of manufacturing things en masse (and for the masses) that takes the initiative for choosing products out of the hands of the consumer and puts it into the hands of the manufacturer. Before mass-production methods were introduced, producers made things to order. They did not, by and large, manufacture things in the vague hope of selling them at some later date. They made things when they knew they had a customer.
In Elizabethan times, shops were not stuffed with goods waiting for buyers. They were full of craftsmen waiting to fulfil orders. With mass-production methods, manufacturers produce things in large quantities without having orders for them in advance. They worry about selling them later—the price they pay for enjoying economies of scale in the manufacturing process.
Mass production is based on the principles of specialisation and division of labour as first described by Adam Smith in “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776, and as first practised in places like Eli Whitney's gun factory in America in the 1790s. Mass-production methods use highly skilled labour to design products and to set up production systems, and highly unskilled labour to produce standardised components and assemble them (with the help of specialised machinery). The early businesses that used such methods were able to take workers directly out of agricultural labour on the land and on to the factory floor. No significant retraining was required.
The parts used in mass production are often manufactured elsewhere and then put together on a moving production facility known as an assembly line. The result is a standardised product made in a fairly small number of varieties, produced at low cost and of mediocre quality. The work is repetitive, and the workers are regarded as a variable cost to be taken on or laid off as demand dictates. In factories that are designed on the principles of mass production, stopping an assembly line to correct a problem at any one point stops work at all points.
The seminal event in the history of mass production was the appearance of the Model T automobile which, to quote its manufacturer, the Ford Motor Company, “chugged into history on October 1st 1908”. Henry Ford himself called it the “universal car”, and it became so popular that, by the end of 1913, Ford was making half of all the cars produced in the United States.
To keep up with demand, says Ford's official record of events:
[The company] initiated mass production in the factory. Mr Ford reasoned that with each worker remaining in one assigned place, with one specific task to do, the automobile would take shape more quickly as it moved from section to section and countless man-hours would be saved. To test the theory, a chassis was dragged by rope and windlass along the floor of the Highland Park, Michigan, plant in the summer of 1913. Modern mass production was born! Eventually, Model Ts were rolling off the assembly lines at the rate of one every 10 seconds of each working day. The moving assembly line was the start of an industrial revolution. In the 19 years that the Model T was in production, over 15m cars were produced and sold in the United States alone. Ford became an industrial complex that was the envy of every industrialist in the world.
In Innovation in Marketing, Theodore Levitt gave an alternative view of the Ford saga:
[Henry Ford's real genius] was marketing. We think he was able to cut his selling price and therefore sell millions of $500 cars because his invention of the assembly line had reduced the costs. Actually he invented the assembly line because he had concluded that at $500 he could sell millions of cars. Mass production was the result, not the cause of his low prices. Not until the Japanese introduced techniques such as just-in-time did manufacturing industry again experience such a dramatic change. And not until the late 20th century did the development of the internet make it seem possible that the initiative in the buyer/seller relationship would shift back, out of the hands of manufacturers and into the hands of consumers.
In my mind, Old Henry Ford,wasn't so Wise,,to me he was simply a "opportunistic fellow".I hate to compare ,Yet Hitler and Ford had a lot in "Common", as opportunist's, as well as "Giving Power to the Few"-me
Slavery,another great example of "Mass production",and placing power in the hands of a Few.
The economies of mass production come from several sources. The primary cause is a reduction of nonproductive effort of all types. In craft production, the craftsman must bustle about a shop, getting parts and assembling them. He must locate and use many tools many times for varying tasks. In mass production, each worker repeats one or a few related tasks that use the same tool to perform identical or near-identical operations on a stream of products. The exact tool and parts are always at hand, having been moved down the assembly line consecutively. The worker spends little or no time retrieving and/or preparing materials and tools, and so the time taken to manufacture a product using mass production is shorter than when using traditional methods.
The probability of human error and variation is also reduced, as tasks are predominantly carried out by machinery; error in operating such machinery, however, has more far-reaching consequences. A reduction in labour costs, as well as an increased rate of production, enables a company to produce a larger quantity of one product at a lower cost than using traditional, non-linear methods.
However, mass production is inflexible because it is difficult to alter a design or production process after a production line is implemented. Also, all products produced on one production line will be identical or very similar, and introducing variety to satisfy individual tastes is not easy. However, some variety can be achieved by applying different finishes and decorations at the end of the production line if necessary. The starter cost for the machinery can be expensive so the producer must be sure it sells or the producers will lose a lot of money.
The Ford Model T produced tremendous affordable output but was not very good at responding to demand for variety, customization, or design changes. As a consequence Ford eventually lost market share to General Motors, who introduced annual model changes, more accessories and a choice of colors.
With each passing decade, engineers have found ways to increase the flexibility of mass production systems, driving down the lead times on new product development and allowing greater customization and variety of products.
In the 1830s, French political thinker and historian Alexis de Tocqueville identified one of the key characteristics of America that would later make it so amenable to the development of mass production: the homogeneous consumer base. De Tocqueville wrote in his Democracy in America (1835) that "The absence in the United States of those vast accumulations of wealth which favor the expenditures of large sums on articles of mere luxury... impact to the productions of American industry a character distinct from that of other countries' industries. [Production is geared toward] articles suited to the wants of the whole people".
Mass production improved productivity, which was a contributing factor to economic growth and the decline in work week hours, alongside other factors such as transportation infrastructures (canals, railroads and highways) and agricultural mechanization. These factors caused the typical work week to decline from 70 hours in the early 19th century to 60 hours late in the century, then to 50 hours in the early 20th century and finally to 40 hours in the mid-1930s.
Mass production permitted great increases in total production. Using a European crafts system into the late 19th century it was difficult to meet demand for products such as sewing machines and animal powered mechanical harvesters. By the late 1920s many previously scarce goods were in good supply. One economist has argued that this constituted "overproduction" and contributed to high unemployment during the Great Depression. Say's law denies the possibility of general overproduction and for this reason classical economists deny that it had any role in the Great Depression. Good example of" comfirmation bias"(Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias, is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to alternative possibilities. It is a type of cognitive bias and a systematic error of inductive reasoning.)
Mass Production drives Mass Population
We can clearly see this is a" Big Problem"-me
I am sad we can't allow people from Mexico just come to the United States,yet it is a reality we must adapt to,,I have thought for some Time,,long before Trump,,we should very publicly have a "Commision to Work with Mexico,to help us all understand "Why People think they need to come to the United States?.-How can we as Partners create/improve, Mexico into a Place where people can Live.?..I don't think building a Wall,a great Idea,,,I think people forget, Germany not long ago ,tore down one!-me
I think Americans must realize "Sure we have a High Standard of Living as far as Luxury,technology etc.,Yet Psychologically,our Standard of Living is rapidly declining, or else we would not have such a high Addiction problem,crime problem,etc.
In Essense we can't keep adding more people to the "Boat",,when it is in danger of sinking already.-me
I was thinking today about how in the mid 1980's I was studying/working with several "old sign painters to learn the "Way",then it ended,because of the "computer sign printer".....then I thought "what was gained?,what was lost?,a Extinction of a Craft,a Art?,I found no real gain,unless "Faster is your Game". Then because Making Scenarios in my Head,is helpful to me,and I love traditional sign painting,and the study of the Gray Wolf (,it's social aspects inspire me). So the Scenario goes:
Contrast of: Say your a Gray Wolf,..you awake a find yourself in a completely new and unfamiliar environment, there no longer is large prey (that is what a gray wolf needs,unlike the adaptable coyote) ,now what is your way of "making a living",how can you adapt?,The Pack must have large prey in order to eat,the territory we hunted is gone."We shall go Extinct".
The Traditional Sign painter looks at the "computer sign printer",the first thought,"I spent a some many years perfecting my art,now in a matter of a few years,my art has no need,"We shall go Extinct".."This was very much a Reality due to "Mass Production"
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