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                       - Positive psychology-

                              "About time to get back to Plato's ways, we tried Aristotle's Logic,which alone,falls short" 

                                                                                     -my 2 cents-

Epistemology

Plato (left) and Aristotle in Raphael's 1509 fresco, The School of Athens. Aristotle holds his Nicomachean Ethics and gestures to the earth, representing empirical observation, whilst Plato gestures to the heavens, representing The Forms, and holds his Timaeus.[33]

Like his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal. Aristotle's ontology places the universal (katholou) in particulars (kath' hekaston), things in the world, whereas for Plato the universal is a separately existing form which actual things imitate. This means that Aristotle's epistemology is based on the study of things that exist or happen in the world, and rises to knowledge of the universal, whereas for Plato epistemology begins with knowledge of universal Forms (or ideas) and descends to knowledge of particular imitations of these.[32] For Aristotle, "form" is still what phenomena are based on, but is "instantiated" in a particular substance.[34] Aristotle uses induction from examples alongside deduction, whereas Plato relies on deduction from a priori principles.[32] 

This unique historical position has not always contributed to the understanding of Aristotle’s logical works. Kant thought that Aristotle had discovered everything there was to know about logic, and the historian of logic Prantl drew the corollary that any logician after Aristotle who said anything new was confused, stupid, or perverse. During the rise of modern formal logic following Frege and Peirce, adherents of Traditional Logic (seen as the descendant of Aristotelian Logic) and the new mathematical logic tended to see one another as rivals, with incompatible notions of logic. More recent scholarship has often applied the very techniques of mathematical logic to Aristotle’s theories, revealing (in the opinion of many) a number of similarities of approach and interest between Aristotle and modern logicians.

My position is When will realize, logic can not explain so many things.and that Plato views are very different then Aristotle's ,yet Humanity latched onto the logic part of Aristotle's philosophy,due not understanding Metaphysics is considered to be one of the greatest philosophical works. Its influence on the Greeks, the Muslim philosophers, the scholastic philosophers and even writers such as Dante, was immense. It is essentially a reconciliation of Plato's theory of Forms that Aristotle acquired at the Academy in Athens, with the view of the world given by common sense and the observations of the natural sciences. According to Plato, the real nature of things is eternal and unchangeable. . if one looks at Iain McGilchrist's in essense says we need Logic and nonlogic both

The master and his emissary.jpg
Front cover of The Master and His Emissary
AuthorIain McGilchrist
CountryUnited States and United Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
GenrePsychology, neuroscience, philosophy of mind, sociocultural evolution
PublisherYale University Press
Publication date30 October 2009
Media typePrint (Hardback)
Pages608 pp.
ISBN0-300-14878-X (hardback edition)

The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World is a 2009 book written by Iain McGilchrist that deals with the specialist hemispheric functioning of the brain. The differing world views of the right and left brain (the "Master" and "Emissary" in the title, respectively) have, according to the author, shaped Western culture since the time of the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, and the growing conflict between these views has implications for the way the modern world is changing.[1] In part, McGilchrist's book, which is the product of twenty years of research,[2] reviews the evidence of previous related research and theories, and based on this and cultural evidence, the author arrives at his own conclusions. 


As Iain McGilchrist clearly puts it " We must have balance in our individual brains" or Chaos we will have,as we clearly Do!


Positive psychology is "the scientific study of what makes life most worth living",[1] or "the scientific study of positive human functioning and flourishing on multiple levels that include the biological, personal, relational, institutional, cultural, and global dimensions of life".[2] Positive psychology is concerned with eudaimonia, "the good life", reflection about what holds the greatest value in life – the factors that contribute the most to a well-lived and fulfilling life.

Positive psychology began as a new domain of psychology in 1998 when Martin Seligman chose it as the theme for his term as president of the American Psychological Association.[3][4][5] Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Christopher Peterson and Barbara Fredrickson are regarded as co-initiators of this development.[6] It is a reaction against psycho-analysis and behaviorism, which have focused on "mental illness", meanwhile emphasising maladaptive behavior and negative thinking. It builds further on the humanistic movement, which encouraged an emphasis on happiness, well-being, and positivity, thus creating the foundation for what is now known as positive psychology.[5]

Positive psychologists have suggested a number of ways in which individual happiness may be fostered. Social ties with a spouse, family, friends and wider networks through work, clubs or social organisations are of particular importance, while physical exercise and the practice of meditation may also contribute to happiness. Happiness may rise with increasing financial income, though it may plateau or even fall when no further gains are made

                                                                                                                                                                        - wikipedia

Basic concepts

Positive psychology is concerned with eudaimonia, "the good life" or flourishing, living according to what holds the greatest value in life – the factors that contribute the most to a well-lived and fulfilling life. While not attempting a strict definition of the good life, positive psychologists agree that one must live a happy, engaged, and meaningful life in order to experience "the good life". Martin Seligman referred to "the good life" as "using your signature strengths every day to produce authentic happiness and abundant gratification".[8] According to Christopher Peterson, "eudaimonia trumps hedonism".[1]

Positive psychology complements, without intending to replace or ignore, the traditional areas of psychology. By emphasizing the study of positive human development this field helps to balance other approaches that focus on disorder, and which may produce only limited understanding.[9] Positive psychology has also placed a significant emphasis on fostering positive self-esteem and self-image, though positive psychologists with a less humanist bent are less likely to focus as intently on the matter. [10]

The basic premise of positive psychology is that human beings are often drawn by the future more than they are driven by the past. A change in our orientation to time can dramatically affect how we think about the nature of happiness. Seligman identified other possible goals: families and schools that allow children to grow, workplaces that aim for satisfaction and high productivity, and teaching others about positive psychology.[11]

Those who practice positive psychology attempt psychological interventions that foster positive attitudes toward one's subjective experiences, individual traits, and life events.[12] The goal is to minimize pathological thoughts that may arise in a hopeless mindset, and to, instead, develop a sense of optimism toward life.[12] Positive psychologists seek to encourage acceptance of one's past, excitement and optimism about one's future experiences, and a sense of contentment and well-being in the present.[13]

Related concepts are happiness, well-being, quality of life, contentment,[14] and meaningful life.


8 ways empathy makes us use our brains ; from  Empathy: Medicine for a Wounded World

  1. Be flexible in your thinking. Empathy requires flexibility of mind—an ability to think abstractly and not in terms of black and white. It is avoiding the temptation to group people together and label them as a single entity: all females, all males, all democrats, all republicans, all people of one race or one religion. After all, how can we have empathy for others if we don’t see them as individuals? Get to know one or two people this week who are completely different from you. Find out why they believe as they do. What makes them tick? Then accept them as they are.
  2. Remember: We are all connected. Philosopher Alan Watts once wisely said, “But I’ll tell you what hermits realize. If you go off into a far, far forest, and get very quiet, you’ll come to understand that you’re connected with everything.” In order to develop empathy, we must remember that we are energetically connected to everything and everyone. It’s like living in a web—when we send out positive or negative vibes toward someone else, that energy has no choice but to bounce right back to us. When we live under the false illusion of separation and disconnection from others, we are more likely to lash out or treat someone in an unkind way.
  3. Love yourself deeply. Have compassion for yourself. Forgive yourself. Don’t say mean things to yourself. You will naturally begin treating others with more compassion when you end the war against yourself.
  4. Give up your perception of lack. Many times we believe that there is only so much to go around—only so much money, so much love, so much beauty—we feel like we have to claim what’s ours. We get jealous if someone else is more attractive, makes or inherits more money, or has more friends. Our ego tells us that anytime someone else has something, it takes away from ourselves. This false and dangerous belief rips away our ability to empathize with people whom we think have had it too easy in life. For example, look at how celebrities are ridiculed in magazines and TV. Do we think that just because they are rich, beautiful or famous that they don’t have feelings? Of course not.
  5. Be open-minded. Empathy is recognizing that you don't have the exact same brain chemistry, IQ, childhood experiences, relationship experiences, failures and accomplishments, fears, viewpoint, likes and dislikes as someone else. Perhaps you worked and paid your way through college and landed yourself a good job. Does that mean everyone else is totally capable of doing the same? Perhaps you tried drugs once and had the self control to never try them again. Does that mean that everyone has that ability? Remain open to the fact that you simply don’t know everything about another person. Perhaps they are weak where you are strong, and they are strong where you are weak.
  6. Imagine yourself in a variety of scenarios. Imagine what life would be like if you had been born into another family, a different religion, a different gender or a different race. Consistently put yourself in others’ shoes. One fun way to do this is to read literary fiction! Researchers at The New School at New York City found that reading literary fiction helps people better understand what others are thinking and feeling.
  7. Practice love through your actions. As you go about your day, treat others how you would want someone to treat your own child or closest loved one.
  8. Work toward radical empathy. Having empathy for someone who has harmed you is the toughest to achieve: this is known as radical empathy. For example, you may have deep empathy for a girl you know whose mom is dying of cancer. But what happens if your boyfriend leaves you for that same girl? It's a whole different story when that person is perceived to "take something" from you or hurt you in some way. This type of empathy requires prayer and a shedding of the ego—but everyone is capable of it. You can begin in small doses—when someone is rude to you, respond with kindness. This is the only way the world is going to change. Martin Luther King, Jr. said it best: “Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that.”