“There is nothing so expensive, really, as a big, well-developed, full-bodied preconception.”
― E.B. White, One Man's Meat
examples of Interpretation bias;
The field of study of sexuality in non-human species was a long-standing taboo. In the past, researchers sometimes failed to observe, mis-categorising and mis-described sexual behaviour which did not meet their preconceptions (mainly from western puritanism). In earlier periods, bias tended to support what would now be described as conservative sexual mores. An example of overlooking behaviour relates to descriptions of giraffe mating:
When nine out of ten pairings occur between males, "[e]very male that sniffed a female was reported as sex, while anal intercourse with orgasm between males was only [categorized as] 'revolving around' dominance, competition or greetings."
In the 21st century, liberal social or sexual views are often projected upon animal subjects of research. Popular discussions of bonobos are a frequently cited example. Current research frequently expresses views such as that of the Natural History Museum at the University of Oslo, which in 2006 held an exhibition on animal sexuality:
Many researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex. They must realise that animals can have sex with who they will, when they will and without consideration to a researcher's ethical principles.
Other animal activities may be misinterpreted due to the frequency and context in which animals perform the behaviour. For example, domestic ruminants display behaviours such as mounting and head-butting. This often occurs when the animals are establishing dominance relationships and are not necessarily sexually motivated. Careful analysis must be made to interpret what animal motivations are being expressed by those behaviours.
Interpretation bias is a lot like alcoholism in that those who have the condition are the most likely to deny having it. Also, as with alcoholism, the first step in overcoming interpretation bias is to admit that you have it. You probably have interpretation bias if you do any of the following:
Have strong opinions on certain issues that are unlikely to ever change
Actively seek out information that confirms your viewpoint
Have strong reactions to any information or perspectives that challenge your beliefs
Hang out exclusively with people who share your views
Often dismiss or ignore the suggestions of others
Observe yourself and others (specifically the leaders in your organization) to look for signs of interpretation bias. As you witness the signs on a daily basis, your awareness of your bias and others’ begins to grow.Interpretive bias or interpretation bias is an information-processing bias, the tendency to inappropriately analyze ambiguous stimuli, scenarios and events. One type of interpretive bias is hostile attribution bias, wherein individuals perceive benign or ambiguous behaviors as hostile. For example, a situation in which one friend walks past another without acknowledgement. The individual may interpret this behavior to mean that their friend is angry with them.
“Your judgment, perceptions, preconceptions, and expectations all cloud the moment. If you want to become more aware, empty your mind, so that you can see the moment more clearly.”
― Akiroq Brost
“...you cannot enter into an investigation with a philosophy that dictates the outcome. Objectivity is paramount; this is the first principle of detective work that each of us must learn. It sounds simple, but our presuppositions are sometimes hidden in a way that makes them hard to uncover and recognize.”
― J Warner Wallace
“Perhaps it was that I wanted to see what I had learned, what I had read, what I had imagined, that I would never be able to see the city of London without seeing it through the overarching scrim of every description of it I had read before. When I turn the corner into a small, quiet, leafy square, am I really seeing it fresh, or am I both looking and remembering? [...]
This is both the beauty and excitement of London, and its cross to bear, too. There is a tendency for visitors to turn the place into a theme park, the Disney World of social class, innate dignity, crooked streets, and grand houses, with a cavalcade of monarchs as varied and cartoony as Mickey Mouse, Snow White, and, at least in the opinion of various Briths broadhseets, Goofy.
They come, not to see what London is, or even what it was, but to confirm a kind of picture-postcard view of both, all red telephone kiosks and fog-wreathed alleyways.”
― Anna Quindlen, Imagined London: A Tour of the World's Greatest Fictional City
Everybody can Draw, if they can hold a pencil to write, what they think they see, just few can draw what is Really there before them, only those whom have obtained to control their minds, see un-preconceived , can one really see well enough to draw well. Even the idea that " not being able to Draw, and draw fairly well is a socially constructed preconception, the throw in a twist of lack of attention, no desire, all out thought it is silly to try, and can't make money at it, so a waste of time. - me
My thoughts are Apathy is the enemy of Attention, which reflects lack of Empathy, and Desire for progress.
“The opposite of love is not hate, it's indifference. The opposite of art is not ugliness, it's indifference. The opposite of faith is not heresy, it's indifference. And the opposite of life is not death, it's indifference.”
― Elie Wiesel
“If I didn't care for fun and such,
I'd probably amount to much.
But I shall stay the way I am,
Because I do not give a damn.”
― Dorothy Parker, Enough Rope
“Do the thing you fear most and the death of fear is certain.” – Mark Twain
This is more in the Way, I have been looking at " Generational " ↓
I think we never become really and genuinely our entire and honest selves until we are dead--and not then until we have been dead years and years. People ought to start dead, and they would be honest so much earlier.
- Mark Twain in Eruption
Or on framework of the individual," 50 years of life , Self-Agenda driven, then sudden it is to late to change, why in that 50 years did the need to Self-Actualize not occur ? , if not for societal need if nothing else ?
A fundamental aspect of the human condition is that nobody can ever determine with absolute certainty whether a proposition about the world is true or false. In addition, whenever the truth of a proposition is expressed, it is always done by an individual, and it can never be considered to represent a general and objective belief. These philosophical ideas are directly reflected in the mathematical formalism of subjective logic.
Throughout our history Americans have taken their freedom for granted. We are born with it intact, and are taught to expect the rights designated in the Constitution to apply to our lives from beginning to end. The original framers of this impressive document based its content on this premise.
Yet thought the " Rights ' seem to Shadow the "Obligation's " aspects of maintaining and progressing a " Free State" to it is very naïve to assume Freedom ever will maintain it's self internally or externally and more then the individual can,without discipline,attention and empathy for the minority..- me
“Elections belong to the people. It's their decision. If they decide to turn their back on the fire and burn their behinds, then they will just have to sit on their blisters.”
― Abraham Lincoln
The Right to Petition Government. The Petition section of the first amendment, also commonly referred to as the Petition Clause, states that “People have the right to appeal to government in favor of or against policies that affect them or in which they feel strongly. This freedom includes the right to gather signatures in support... "This is a Right as much as it is a Obligation"
The greatness of a free society is reflected in how they treat the minority
A Free Society
Americans have always defined true freedom as an environment in which one may resist evil and do what is right, noble, and good without fear of reprisal. It is the presence of justice tempered with mercy. It is a rule of law based on fundamental moral truths that are easily understood and fairly and effectively administered. It offers individuals and families equal opportunity to better their lives morally, spiritually, intellectually, and economically.
Freedom, in other words, is neither a commodity for dictators to distribute and deny at will nor a moral, spiritual, or political vacuum in which anything goes. Freedom is a priceless treasure that the state is supposed to safeguard. Why? Because human beings have an intrinsic right to be free, a right that comes not from the state but from God. To the Founding Fathers, this was a "self-evident" truth. It is the essence of the American experiment in self-government.
The Founders, even those most suspicious of organized religion, believed that man’s place in the universe was no accident--that man himself and the world in which he lived were created and sustained by a just and loving God. "It is impossible to account for the creation of the universe without the agency of a Supreme Being," wrote George Washington, "and it is impossible to govern the universe without the aid of a Supreme Being." James Madison put it this way: "The belief in a God All Powerful, wise and good, is so essential to the moral order of the World and to the happiness of man, that arguments which enforce it cannot be drawn from too many sources."
The Unfinished Challenge
America’s moral and creative energies have always come from the ground up. When Tocqueville visited America 160 years ago, he noticed the enormous energy that comes from people laboring together voluntarily--through churches and synagogues, schools, hospitals, sports, cultural activities, and professional activities--for a shared goal and purpose.
The stakes, therefore, are enormous. If America makes the economic, political, and moral changes necessary to move forward in the years ahead, then the rest of the world has a chance of getting it right. But if America drifts off course, then the rest of the world will be in trouble as well.
Steve Forbes - Hoover Institution
This also very much means Freedom of the way we view " Creation "- me
I found this great, and a bonus due to fact back in late 1980's I found myself standing next to Harry Belafonte, waiting to board a flight.
I always loved this song
Holding the "Seal of Certainity", is a Fatal mistake, one humanity is addicted to.
Doing the same thing over and over, and expecting
" different results "
The New Puritan Shame Culture
excerpt from ; patheos.com
Likely as we are as 21st century Americans to congratulate ourselves for not behaving the way our Puritan ancestors did, things aren’t as different as you might think. Millennials may be an urbane, diverse and “tolerant” generation, but they are also caught in a vicious cultural mire of shaming, vindictiveness, and postmodern puritanical preening that rivals their 17th century ancestors.
Owing largely to the recent publication of Jon Ronson’s well-reviewed book So You’ve Been Publicly Shamed, some light is being shed on the cavernous world of social media “shaming,” a merciless phenomenon that is more common and more serious than many—perhaps most—believe. Of course, few people would be surprised to learn there are dark corners of the internet or that digital anonymity can bring out the worst in people. But the problem of public shaming goes beyond meanness. In its worst manifestations, shaming is a weapon wielded by volunteer morality gatekeepers to, as Julian Hawthorne put it, “trample you down.”
Ronson’s work has resulted in the publication of several frightening stories, such as what happened to Justine Sacco. Yet few commentators on this social phenomenon–including Ronson–seem willing to explore shaming’s causes or offer a serious moral worldview of public confrontation. Listening to shaming stories is important, of course, but we are not likely to overcome this vicious trend if we cannot speak in clear and objective language about it.
Julian Hawthorne’s insights into his father’s novel might be helpful in remedying our deficient understanding of contemporary public shaming. Hawthorne is on to something when he identifies the public shaming of Hester Prynne as non-redemptive and merely the removal of a “clog” from the engine of the culture. The hypocrisy of the moral authorities of Puritan Boston was not only that they were guilty of sin as well, but that they turned sinners away from the society and the hope of redemption under the pretense of holiness.
No, we cannot. The reason is simple: A broken American conscience cannot be trusted. Compassion is a class that secularism doesn’t offer. Exchanging the Puritanism of Arthur Dimmesdale for the Puritanism of Alfred Kinsey is not progress. Cultural elites may say we are becoming a better people because we break with human history on the meaning of marriage or the dignity of human life, but a glance outside suggests otherwise. ?
I do know I have never met anyone " Pure " nor " Perfect ". nor am I
I also know each living thing as a built in need to Survive, if I threaten that need, I must be aware I threaten myself as well...this is fairly certain.
I like to point out that my beliefs in several ways are very different then these to men ↑, yet many ways similar, as most people of the world, we all hold different beliefs, yet if only hold one same one ,such as ; " Do on to others, as you wish done on to you ", there most likely would be a much safer, peaceful place to live. Maybe we need to stop using words such as " agree and disagree ", less often, replacing with simply , " hold a different belief ".
I think all have to realize " War " is not a option
Duty To Warn is an association of mental health professionals and other concerned citizens who advocate Trump’s removal under the 25th Amendment on the grounds that he is psychologically unfit.
John Gartner, Ph.D., whom we mentioned in the post. John is the founder of Duty to Warn, an organization intent on warning our country that we are in dire trouble due to our president’s mental instability. More than 60,000 mental health professionals have signed John’s petition, which states:
“We, the undersigned mental health professionals, believe in our professional judgment that Donald Trump manifests a serious mental illness that renders him psychologically incapable of competently discharging the duties of President of the United States. And we respectfully request he be removed from office, according to article 4 of the 25th amendment to the Constitution, which states that the president will be replaced if he is ‘unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office.’”We Are Mandated Reporters
excerpt from above site in regards to multitasking ; "
"The brain is an energy hog. It consumes an astounding 3.4 x 1021 ATP molecules per minute (ATP is the coal of the body’s furnace). The mere cost of maintaining resting potentials in all of our neurons means that little energy is left for neuronal spikes—the nerve discharges that actually get things done.
Even given a few percent of firing neurons in a local region, the energy burden of generating spikes over the entire cortex is unsustainable. Far less than 10% is the energy limit we must live with. It is for this reason that selective attention exists—our focus on one thing at a time. It is why multitasking is a fool’s errand: We simply lack the energy to do two things at once, let alone thre or five. When we try to multitask we do each task less well than if we’d given it our full attention."
And compared to even 100 years ago " Multi-tasking " has become a way of life,,we are overloaded with input., useless imformation.
I believe that Once the percentage of Americans who believe in Religions and The percentage that don't ,yet are spiritual in believing in " We are part of Nature,(view of what is reality) until this is Balanced toward 50/50, no real advance can be made, we must have balance!
Alan Taylor, “Educating Citizens and Reforming Generations” / vimeo
Religions .due to their inability to adapt need to Die out unfortunately.
excerpt from ↑
It won't die out completely, but "religion will be driven toward extinction" in countries including Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Netherlands, they say.
It will also wither away in Austria, the Czech Republic, Finland and Switzerland, they anticipate.
They can't make a prediction about the United States because the U.S. census doesn't ask about religion, lead author Daniel Abrams told CNN.
But nine other countries provide enough data for detailed mathematical modeling, he said.
"If you look at the data, 'unaffiliated' is the fastest-growing group" in those countries, he said.
"We start with two big assumptions based on sociology," he explained.
The first is that it's more attractive to be part of the majority than the minority, so as religious affiliation declines, it becomes more popular not to be a churchgoer than to be one, he said - what Abrams calls the majority effect.
"People are more likely to switch to groups with more members," he said.
Social networks can have a powerful influence, he said.
"Just a few connections to people who are (religiously) unaffiliated is enough to drive the effect," he said.
The other assumption underlying the prediction is that there are social, economic and political advantages to being unaffiliated with a religion in the countries where it's in decline - what Abrams calls the utility effect.
Obiviously most people follow the majority, why hitler used the " Major Effect " to take power, he relied on the irrational , as once a group becomes irrational, they are all trapped in the same " boat " or like the Allegory of Cave ;
I would think in the United States , like any addiction, to replace some ideology, one needs another ideology,
thus I would think Panentheism would would be a good alternative.
I must say I agree with Sam Harris,and my biggest concern is that religions are non-adapting, thus need to change,
or no longer exist,
in the content / context they currently hold.
I believe the Wall between church and state needs built even higher.
No religion should be tax excempt, for example
Sam Harris gives nice view of " Values " @ aprox. 29:00